A History Lesson Feed

July 4, 1826

1FROM:  http://www.homeofheroes.com

Requiem for an American President

 

The celebration of our Nation's 50th birthday was saddened this day in history by the death of our second president, John Adams. It was the eloquent Adams who had so persuasively defended Thomas Jefferson's DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE before the Continental Congress in 1776, ultimately leading to the birth of this new Nation. It may have been the last time Adams and Jefferson agreed on anything.

Jefferson's Declaration was born on June 7, 1776 when Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee laid before the Congress a resolution calling for the 13 colonies to be "free and independent states, absolved of all allegiance to the British crown." Moderates argued against the historic resolution, pointing out that the middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware were undecided about complete separation of the colonies from crown rule. By day's end there was little consensus, but members of the delegation appointed a five-man committee to draft a declaration of independence for consideration at the July 1st meeting.

The task of drafting the declaration should have fallen to elder statesman Benjamin Franklin, but his illness precluded a timely completion of the task. The task then should have fallen to Adams, who argued instead that Jefferson should write it. Jefferson at first attempted to defer to Adams until, in frustration, the Massachusetts delegate grudgingly stated, "You are 10 times the writer I am." Thus Jefferson prepared the draft with suggestions for revisions coming from both Franklin and Adams. The finished document was presented to the Second Continental Congress on June 28th. A poor speaker, Jefferson's written work impressed the Assembly, despite some reservations. The more eloquent Adams vigorously defended the work, which was adopted on July 2nd. That evening Adams wrote his thoughts on the new declaration to his wife, stating in part: "The second day of July 1776 will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival."

Actually Adams was two days off. Editing of the document continued until it was formally approved by 12 of the 13 colonies on July 4th. (The New York delegation abstained from the vote, but approved the Declaration five days later.) On August 2nd the 53 delegates present signed the document, and the 3 absent members subsequently added their names. Among the 56 signers were both of the men most responsible for the Declaration's existence, Adams and Thomas Jefferson.

From that point forward the clashes between Adams and Jefferson were widely known. During Adam's two terms as vice president under George Washington, more than one conflict arose between him and Secretary of State Jefferson. As a Federalist, Adams found his political views quite at odds with the man who would become the leader of the rival Democratic-Republicans. When Washington left the Presidency the battle for a successor was bitterly fought between Vice President Adams and Secretary Jefferson. Adams defeated Jefferson by a 3 vote margin (71-68 electoral votes), becoming our second president. That bitter campaign was renewed in 1800 when Jefferson defeated Adams to become our third President. So intense was their rivalry that, on the day of Jefferson's inauguration Adams was carriage-bound out of the new Capitol City when the new president assumed office. (The recent death of his son in New York provided a convenient excuse not to attend the inauguration of the incoming presidentJefferson served two terms as President after defeating the incumbent Adams, then retired to his home in Monticello. Meanwhile from his retirement farm in Quincy, Massachusetts Adams began to write long and elaborate letters to his old adversary. A grudging admiration for each other may have developed in their later years. Nonetheless, Adams always proclaimed that, though Jefferson was 7 years younger than himself...

 "I will out live Jefferson."

On his death bed on Independence Day, 1826 John Adams uttered his last words.  They were "Thomas Jefferson survives." 

It is rumored that upon Adam's death the messenger dispatched to carry the news to Jefferson's Virginia home actually passed a messenger dispatched from THAT site to Adam's home, also bearing sad tidings. 

Just a few hours earlier Thomas Jefferson had passed away….both architects of the document that gave birth to this new Nation dead, 50 years to the day from the birth of the country they founded.

 

Footnote:

In 1831 James Monroe, our Nation's 5th President, also died on the 4th of July. In 1850 our 12th President, Zachary Taylor participated in July 4th activities at the Washington monument. It was a blistery day and the president became quite ill. He died five days later on July 9th.

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We Mutually Pledge To Each Other Our Lives, Our Fortunes And Our Sacred Honor

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When the Continental Congress opened its session of Friday, August 2, 1776, in Philadelphia, the major business of the day was to continue a somewhat moribund debate on the Articles of Confederation. An incidental piece of business was the signing, by all the delegates to the Congress, of an engrossed copy of the Declaration of Independence—a matter which John Adams did not consider sufficiently important to mention in his diary of the day’s events. The great day, to him, was neither that of the signing of the Declaration, August 2, nor that of its adoption, July 4. The day “to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations [he wrote his wife] from one end of the continent to the other, from this time forward forever more” would be July 2—the day the Congress passed a resolution affirming that the states were independent of the British crown.

There was little ceremony about the signing. Fiftyone of the fifty-six delegates were present. The other five signed the document later, in the fall of 1776, except for Thomas McKean of Delaware, who signed it sometime after January, 1777, or—according to some evidence—asiate as 1781. John Hancock, who as President of the Congress was the only delegate to sign the original document when it was adopted on July 4, was the first to sign the engrossed copy. Highly theatrical in temperament, Hancock wrote his name large and bold, commenting—so it was narrated years after—that he wanted John Bull to be able to read it without spectacles. Franklin, the oldest of the delegates, was reported to have responded to Hancock’s worried “We must be unanimous…we must all hans; together” with his breezy “Yes, we must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately.” One of the newer members of the Congress, William Ellery of Rhode Island, who was of a literary bent, sensed the history of the occasion; he stationed himself close to the secretary in order to observe the expressions on the faces of the delegates as they affixed their signatures. “Undaunted resolution,” he reported of all of them.

There is little evidence that the actual signing struck any delegates, other than the impressionable Ellery and the dramaturgic Hancock, as one of the great moments in history. The delegation from Massachusetts, where the war had been going on for well over a year, thought it was long overdue, and Samuel Adams grumbled constantly about its lateness. Elbridge Gerry agreed with him: “We should have declared independence last winter and received a great advantage therefrom…” But Robert Morris of Pennsylvania thought it too early—“a certain premature declaration which you know I always opposed,” he wrote superciliously to Horatio Gates, the military malcontent of the Revolution.

The fifty-six men who were to achieve an immortality, the true dimensions of which seem clearly to have escaped all of them, represented no single stratum of colonial life. They were of varied backgrounds, ages, education, property, and experience. Two were brothers—the Lees. There were also two Adamses, remote cousins, and two Morrises, no kin. There were no father-son combinations, although Thomas Lynch, Jr., was sent by South Carolina to succeed his ailing father, who died on the way home from Philadelphia. And Dr. Benjamin Rush was the son-in-law of signer Richard Stockton of New Jersey.

Some of the signers, like the Adamses of Massachusetts and the Lees of Virginia, had already had broad political experience and had earned a considerable degree of fame. Some, like Franklin and George Wythe, were known and highly respected throughout the colonies. Others were unheard of, chosen as delegates because they were willing to serve—several as last-minute replacements for men who had refused to vote for independence or to support it. Some signed reluctantly. We have John Adams’ word for that: “…there were several who signed with regret, and several others with many doubts and much lukewarmedness.” But none signed casually. They were clearly aware, as Abraham Clark of New Jersey put it, that they would have “freedom or a halter.”

Sixteen of the signers had riot voted for independence when the vote was taken on July 2. The entire New York delegation of four abstained because they had no directive from their indecisive province. Robert Morris, who opposed the resolution, was intentionally absent on July 2, and five other Pennsylvania signers were elected only late in July to bolster the shaky delegation. Oliver Wolcott was home in Connecticut ill, and his replacement, William Williams, had not yet arrived in Philadelphia. Matthew Thornton, who signed the Declaration in November, was not elected to Congress until September, and Charles Carroll of Maryland was elected on July 4. William Hooper of North Carolina was absent when the independence vote was taken. All these delegates signed the Declaration without having voted for it, although only Morris had actively opposed it. Only one signer actually voted against independence—George Read of Delaware—although he later became an ardent supporter of the Declaration. (His vote, under the unit rule, would have prevented Delaware from casting its vote for independence had not Caesar Rodney, the third man of the Delaware delegation, rushed up from Dover to break the tie between Read and Thomas McKean.)

Eight of the signers were declaring the independence of a land in which they weren’t even born, and all eight of these were natives of the British Isles. The last to arrive in the colonies was Dr. John Witherspoon, president of Princeton, who came from Scotland only eight years before the Declaration. All the rest of the signers were born in America.

 

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Marilyn Monroe was killed--By the Kennedy's?

Bob Barney: I personally believe Monroe was murdered by an enema of drugs and probably the Deep State (CIA) and the Kennedy's were involved.  Monroe kept a diary which the CIA was horrified about.... It went missing after her death...

Did Bobby Kennedy murder Marilyn Monroe with poison?

The claims are hard to believe... but the source is so solid and credible that you will find this amazing story hard to dismiss. A Los Angeles policeman says an ultra-secret Police Department file names JFK's brother Bobby Kennedy (top centre) as the killer of Marilyn Monroe (L) - and actor Peter Lawford (bottom right) confessed to the cop that he watched the murder unfold...  When Marilyn Monroe shrugged off her ermine wrap and handed it to actor Peter Lawford, live on television at Madison Square Garden, she created a moment of pure theatrical Viagra. The 35-year-old star was revealed at the microphone in a skin-tight, rhinestone encrusted gown that made her appear almost naked. It drew a gasp of shocked appreciation from the audience at an early birthday celebration for President John F. Kennedy (top right), in May 1962. The custom-made, flesh-coloured design by Jean Louis had more than 2,500 hand-stitched crystals, and was so snug that Marilyn had to be sewn into it. She sang 'Happy Birthday Mr President' in a voice aching with eroticism. (Also pictured, police taking away Monroe's dead body.)


In 1925 The KKK Tried To Stop a Columbus Statue from Being Constructed, Now the Left Wants the Same Thing


Op-Ed: Dems Won't Tell You, But Abortion Was Called a Crime Against Humanity After WWII


FDR and Stalin, the History is conveniently overlooked!

By Bob Barney

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Winston Churchill was amazed by the love affair between FDR and Stalin. (Stock Photo)

  In her book,  "Roosevelt and Stalin", Susan Butler tells the story of how the leader of the capitalist world and the leader of the Communist world became more than allies of convenience during World War II. They shared the same outlook for the postwar world, and formed an uneasy yet deep friendship, shaping the global  stage from the war to the decades leading up to and into the new century. The book makes clear that Roosevelt worked hard to win Stalin over, by always holding out the promise that Roosevelt’s own ideas were the best hope for the future peace and security of Russia. Stalin, however, was initially unconvinced that Roosevelt’s planned world organization, even with police powers, would be strong enough to keep Germany from starting a new war. 

Wow!   You don't see to many people talking about that do you?  The democrat icon Franklin Roosevelt met with, worked with and even helped one of the biggest butchers of all time stay in power.  It could be said that because America helped to save the USSR from Germany, FDR also helped Stalin murder tens of millions of people, and keep eastern Europe in chains and slavery for 50 years!  The story gets even worse.

Another book, "Roosevelt and Stalin: Portrait of a Partnership" describes the friendship that developed between the two men, and history shows that the friendship bothered our true ally Winston Churchill!  For one thing, Roosevelt pushed for the US to recognize the Soviet Union well before Pearl Harbor, despite the pesky matter of communists despising capitalists and vice versa. And he  supported US help for Russia when “most Americans still thought of Europe’s problems as being as far away as the moon.” The two men bonded by making fun of an annoyed Churchill, and Stalin even teases FDR by acting offended to learn he’s called “Uncle Joe” behind the scenes!  How's that for dissing your allies?

You won't hear anything about this fact of history because:

1 Our modern educational system won't allow such news to fly.  They have dumbed down American children for at least 50 years now.

2 The hate Trump media doesn't want you to know the plain truth about American history, if that history doesn't fit its narrative

3 The DEEP STATE is at war with ordinary Americans, trying to take away our liberties at every chance they can

4 Big Business, Big Politics, Big Banksters and Big Government want to enslave the American worker and force them to work for "Mexican" wages--- maybe even 'Chinese" wages, and that is the Plain Truth!

Since the end of the Cold War there has been considerable reviewing of President Roosevelt’s policies toward the Soviet Union. Most notable has been the essay of Professor Arthur Schlesinger Jr., who has argued that the 1989 counter-revolution in Central Europe vindicates President Roosevelt’s wartime diplomacy, which, he says, had been criticized for its “naiveté” about Stalin. 

Wait, did you read that?c Professor Arthur Schlesinger Jr., says FDR was “naiveté” about Stalin!   Wow, yet we are to believe that Donald Trump deserves to be impeached!

Wake up America. Your media, your government, the globalist, and your police state hates you!  


Charlemagne, Holy Roman emperor: Europe's Amazing Rise Foretold in Bible Prophecy

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Bible prophecy clearly shows that Jesus Christ will return to establish the Kingdom of God, a literal world-ruling kingdom, on earth. This hope is so fundamental that Jesus instructed Christians to regularly pray, “Your kingdom come” (Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2). Prophecies throughout the Bible give many details about Christ’s return and conditions in the world leading up to that event.

The rise of this final world superpower is foretold primarily in the biblical books of Daniel and Revelation. We’ll begin with what God revealed to the prophet Daniel in Old Testament times.

After years of decline, the Roman Empire indeed received a “deadly wound” in A.D. 476 when Rome’s Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by Germanic tribes led by Odoacer. But that was not the end of the Roman Empire. As we will see, that “wound” was indeed healed and the empire would rise again—and again and again through history.

 

Continue reading "Charlemagne, Holy Roman emperor: Europe's Amazing Rise Foretold in Bible Prophecy" »


Today; June 6th--Never forget: D-Day's enormous cost on beaches of Normandy

D-Day was June 6, 1944.

image from www.wnd.com

Over 160,000 troops from America, Britain, Canada, free France, Poland and other nations landed along a 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast of France. It was the largest amphibious invasion force in world history, supported by 5,000 ships with 195,700 navy personnel and 13,000 aircraft.  On that day, the sea along the heavily fortified beaches of Omaha, Utah, Gold, Juno, Sword and Pointe du Hoc ran red with the blood of almost 9,000 killed or wounded. It was a significant turning point in World War II.

The steps which led up to D-Day deserve serious examination.

After World War I, Germany’s economy suffered from depression and a devaluation of their currency. On Jan. 30, 1933, Adolph Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany by promising hope and universal healthcare. Less than a month later, on Feb. 27, 1933, a crisis occurred – the Rheichstag, Germany’s Capitol Building, was suspiciously set on fire. Hitler was quick to use this crisis as an opportunity to seize emergency powers, suspend basic rights, and accuse his political opponents of conspiracy.

He ordered mass arrests followed by executions, even ordering his SS and Gestapo secret police to murder rivals, as during the Night of the Long Knives. Hitler confiscated guns, forced old German military leaders to retire, and swayed the public with mesmerizing speeches.

Using diplomatic intimidation, deception, and Blitzkrieg “lightning” attacks, Hitler’s National Socialist Workers’ Party proceeded to take control of:

  • Austria
  • The Sudeten Region
  • Bohemia
  • Moravia
  • Poland
  • Denmark
  • Norway
  • Luxembourg
  • Belgium
  • Holland
  • France
  • Monaco
  • Greece
  • The Channel Island (UK)
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Baltic states
  • Serbia
  • Italy
  • Hungary
  • Romania
  • Bulgaria
  • Slovakia
  • Finland
  • Croatia, and more

The National Socialist Workers Party operated over 1,200 concentration camps where an estimated 4,251,500 people lost their lives.


Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2018/06/never-forget-d-days-enormous-cost-on-beaches-of-normandy/#SZgo2HEvXLkCi53s.99


The Plain Truth about Memorial Day

NEVER FORGET!

Boy in Marine uniform lies next to his father's grave at Arlington National Cemetery

Christian Jacobs' (top right) celebrated his father, Sgt Christopher James Jacobs (bottom left), who died in 2011 when Christian was just eight-months-old at Arlington National Cemetery this Memorial Day.

Memorial Day History

Memorial Day, originally called Decoration Day, is a day of remembrance for those who have died in service of the United States of America. It's difficult to prove the origins of this day as over two dozen towns and cities lay claim to be the birthplace. In May 1966, President Lyndon Johnson stepped in and officially declared Waterloo N.Y. the birthplace of Memorial Day.

Regardless of the location of origins or the exact date, one thing is crystal clear – Memorial Day was borne out of the Civil War (which ended in 1865) and a desire to honor our dead. On the 5th of May in 1868, General John Logan who was the national commander of the Grand Army of the republic, officially proclaimed it in his General Order No. 11.

Part of the history of Memorial Day will show that in the Order, the General proclaimed, “The 30th of May, 1868, is designated for the purpose of strewing with flowers, or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village and hamlet churchyard in the land.” Because the day wasn't the anniversary of any particular battle, the General called it, The date of Decoration Day.

On the first Decoration Day, 5,000 participants decorated the graves of 20,000 Union and Confederate soldiers buried at Arlington Cemetery while General James Garfield made a historic speech.

New York was the first state to officially recognize the holiday in 1873. It was recognized by all northern states by 1890. Differently, the South refused to acknowledge the day and honored their dead on separate days. This went on until after World War I when the holiday changed from honoring just those who died fighting in the Civil War to honoring Americans who died fighting in any war.

Honor. Remember. Never forget.

Each year on Memorial Day Americans pause to remember the fallen and honor their sacrifice. Military.com pauses to remember the sacrifice of members of the Army, Air Force, Coast Guard, Marine Corps and Navy

RelatedIn Time for Memorial Day, VA and Arlington Remove COVID Restrictions at Cemeteries

Memorial Day History

First established as Decoration Day after the Civil War, the holiday was set aside for families and friends to visit and decorate the graves of troops lost in the conflict.

As time went on, the observance instead became known as "Memorial Day," until 1971, when Congress declared it an official holiday set to fall annually on the last Monday in May. Read more about the history of Memorial Day.

Memorial Day vs. Veterans Day

Service members, veterans and their families know there is a big difference between Memorial Day and Veterans Day. While Veterans Day, Nov. 11, is a day set aside to celebrate all veterans, Memorial Day is a somber holiday dedicated to honor military fallen, with a special focus on those killed during military service or through enemy contact.

Both holidays often include parades, ceremonies and celebrations. But although Memorial Day also traditionally marks the beginning of summer with picnics and parties, many in the military community believe that at least a portion of it should be spent to mourn and honor the fallen.

With the Congressional passage of the National Holiday Act of 1971 (P.L. 90 – 363), it is now observed on the last Monday in May by almost every state.

This helped ensure a three day weekend (Memorial Day Weekend) for Federal holidays. In addition, several southern states have an additional separate day for honoring the Confederate war dead: January 19th in Texas; April 26th in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi; May 10th in South Carolina; and June 3rd (Jefferson Davis’ birthday) in Louisiana and Tennessee .

History of Memorial Day: Red Poppies

In 1915, inspired by the poem “In Flanders Fields,” Moina Michael replied with her own poem:

We cherish too, the Poppy red That grows on fields where valor led, It seems to signal to the skies That blood of heroes never dies.

She then conceived of an idea to wear red poppies on Memorial day in honor of those who died serving the nation during war. She was the first to wear one, and sold poppies to her friends and co-workers with the money going to benefit servicemen in need. See more on the significance of the Red Poppy.

Later a Madam Guerin from France was visiting the United States and learned of this new custom started by Ms. Michael. When she returned to France she made artificial red poppies to raise money for war orphaned children and widowed women. This tradition spread to other countries. In 1921, the Franco-American Children’s League sold poppies nationally to benefit war orphans of France and Belgium. The League disbanded a year later and Madam Guerin approached the VFW for help.

Shortly before Memorial Day in 1922 the VFW became the first veterans’ organization to nationally sell poppies. Two years later their “Buddy” Poppy program was selling artificial poppies made by disabled veterans. In 1948 the US Post Office honored Ms. Michael for her role in founding the National Poppy movement by issuing a red 3 cent postage stamp with her likeness on it.

National Moment of Remembrance

Memorial day history couldn't be complete without the birth of the the “National Moment of Remembrance”, which was a resolution passed on Dec 2000 which asks that at 3 p.m. local time, for all Americans “To voluntarily and informally observe in their own way a Moment of remembrance and respect, pausing from whatever they are doing for a moment of silence or listening to ‘Taps.”


The Four Chaplains and the Sinking of the USAT Dorchester

 

No Greater Glory: The Four Chaplains and the Sinking of the USAT Dorchester

Written By: Command Sergeant Major James H. Clifford, USA-Ret.

In the early morning hours of 3 February 1943, First Sergeant Michael Warish nearly gave up hope as he floated helplessly in the freezing waters of the North Atlantic.  Just minutes earlier, he and the almost 900 others aboard the USAT Dorchester were near safe waters when a German torpedo slammed into the engine room.  Soon, the Dorchester began to slip under the waves.

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John P. Washington was ordained a Roman Catholic priest on 15 June 1935 and entered the Army in May 1942 after being rejected by the Navy shortly after the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

Warish accepted his fate, fully aware that life expectancy in these cold waters was about twenty minutes.  Surrounded by hundreds of his equally doomed shipmates, the blinking red lights of their life preservers reminded him of Christmas lights.  Other than a burning sensation in his throat from swallowing oil-fouled salt water and some minor pain from wounds suffered when the torpedo hit, he mostly felt numb.

Resigned to losing consciousness and freezing to death shortly thereafter, his thoughts turned to the courageous and selfless acts of the four Army chaplains he witnessed just before abandoning ship.  These four chaplains, according to Warish and other eyewitnesses, remained calm during the panic following the attack, first distributing life preservers and assisting others to abandon ship, then giving up their own life preservers and coming together in prayer as the ship disappeared beneath the surface.

The story of these four chaplains, a Catholic, a Jew, and two Protestants, stands out among the countless stories of commitment and bravery that make up the pantheon of the U.S. Army, as one of the finest examples of courage to God, man, and country.  Each, John P. Washington, Alexander D. Goode, George L. Fox, and Clarke V. Poling, was drawn by the tragedy at Pearl Harbor to the armed forces.  Each wanted more than anything else to serve God by ministering to men on the battlefield.  Each felt great disappointment at being relegated to service in a rear area, in this case the airfields and installations of Greenland.  Yet, each, when the moment came, did not hesitate to put others before self, courageously offering a tenuous chance of survival with the full knowledge of the consequences.

Though the chaplains had vastly different backgrounds, their similar experiences brought them together on the deck of the Dorchester.  Each was tested at a young age and came to the realization that his would be a life of service to God and man.  John P. Washington, born in Newark, New Jersey, on 18 July 1908, was eldest of seven children.  He was the product tough of Irish neighborhoods, where he almost lost his sight to a BB gun accident, nearly died of fever, and then lost his sister Mary to a sudden illness.  By the age of seven, John was on the path to the priesthood.  After attending Catholic elementary and high schools, he entered the seminary in Darlington, New Jersey, and was ordained on 15 June 1935.

After short stints in two parishes, he moved to St. Stephen’s in Arlington, New Jersey.  Father Washington was initially turned down by the Navy after Pearl Harbor because of his poor eyesight.  Disappointed but not defeated, Washington went to the Army.  This time, when it came to the eye test, he covered up his bad eye both times when reading the eye chart, correctly assuming that the doctors would be too busy to pay much attention.  He hoped that God would forgive his subterfuge.

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Alexander D. Goode, a native of Washington, DC, followed in his father’s footsteps and became a rabbi in 1937. Like Chaplain Washington, he originally wanted to serve as a Navy chaplain but was rejected. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

In May 1942 Father Washington left for training at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana.  After a month, he was posted to Fort George G. Meade, Maryland.  Eager to serve overseas, he applied for a transfer.  In a letter to Army Headquarters dated 23 September 1942, he wrote, “Once more may I ask you to consider my application for overseas duty.  If I am being too fresh in requesting it, then slap me down.”  The requests finally worked when, in November 1942, he was transferred to Camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts, to await overseas deployment.  There he met fellow Chaplains Fox, Goode, and Poling.

Alexander D. Goode was born on 10 May 1911, the son of a rabbi.  When he was young, his parents divorced.  He went to Eastern High School in Washington, DC, where he earned medals in tennis, swimming, and track, and was an excellent student.  From his earliest days, he planned to follow in his father’s footsteps as a rabbi.  He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1934, followed by a degree from the Hebrew Union College in 1937.  Virtually penniless as a college student during the Great Depression, Alexander contemplated quitting school and giving up on his dream to become a rabbi, but he believed that it was God’s plan for him to pursue a religious vocation.  For much of his youth, he served in the National Guard to help make ends meet.  In 1935, he and his childhood sweetheart, Theresa Flax, daughter of a rabbi and niece of the singer and motion picture star Al Jolson, were married.  His first assignment as a rabbi was in Marion, Indiana.  Later, he moved to the Beth Israel synagogue of York, Pennsylvania, where he excelled in ecumenicalism, crossing the divide between religions.

In January 1941, the Navy turned down Rabbi Goode’s application to become a chaplain, but the Army Air Forces accepted him after Pearl Harbor.  After training at the Harvard Chaplain School, along with classmates Fox and Poling, he was assigned to Seymour Johnson Field in Goldsboro, North Carolina, where he served until October 1942.  In November 1942, he was reassigned to Camp Myles Standish.

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George L. Fox, the oldest of the Four Chaplains, served in World War I as a medic. After the war, he was ordained a Methodist minister and was appointed as an Army chaplain in July 1942. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

George L. Fox was born on 15 March 1900 in Lewiston, Pennsylvania, and grew up in Altoona in a Catholic family.  His rough childhood under the tyranny of an abusive father shaped him.  Determined to escape, he enlisted to serve in World War I before finishing high school.  He also abandoned Catholicism due to his inability to reconcile the church’s teachings with the abuse he received at home and a desire to leave his past behind.  His gallant service in the Great War as a medic earned him the Silver Star, several Purple Hearts, and French Croix de Guerre.

At the end of World War I, Fox held several jobs before entering Moody Bible Institute in Illinois in 1923.  Before graduation, he became an itinerant Methodist minister.  While holding a student pastorate in Downs, Illinois, he entered Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington, graduating with his Bachelor’s degree in 1929.  While holding another student pastorate in Rye, New Hampshire, Fox enrolled in the Boston University School of Theology, graduating with a Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Sacred Theology) and was ordained a Methodist minister on 10 June 1934.  He assumed the pastorate of a church in Waits River, soon moved on to Union Village, then Gillman, all in Vermont.  By this time, he was married and had a son; a daughter followed in 1936.  While in Vermont he joined the American Legion and would become state chaplain and historian.

As with the other chaplains, Pearl Harbor drew him back to the military.  In July 1942, he was appointed as an Army chaplain and returned to active duty at the age of forty-two on 8 August, the same day that his son Wyatt entered the Marine Corps.  After training at Harvard, he joined the 411th Coast Artillery Battalion (Antiaircraft-Gun) at Camp Davis, North Carolina, until he was ordered to Camp Myles Standish.

Clark V. Poling was born into a prominent family that had produced six generations of ministers.  His father was a well-known radio evangelist and religious newspaper editor.  Born on 7 August 1910, Poling was educated in Massachusetts and New York.  In high school, he played football and was student body president.  There was never any doubt that he would become the seventh generation of his family to enter the ministry.

After studying at Hope College in Michigan and Rutgers University in New Jersey, he entered Yale University’s School of Divinity, after which he was ordained a minister in the Reformed Church of America.  His initial posting was at the First Church of Christ in New London, Connecticut, for a short time until he became pastor of the First Reformed Church in Schenectady, New York.

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Clark V. Poling was born into a family that had produced six generations of ministers. An ordained minister in the American Reformed Church, he was appointed as a chaplain on 10 June 1942. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Reverend Poling volunteered to become a chaplain.  Before departing for the service, his father, Dr. Daniel A. Poling, reminded him of the high casualty rate of chaplains in World War I.  The younger Poling downplayed the danger, confident that God’s will was to keep him safe while he served others.  He was appointed a U. S. Army Chaplain in 10 June 1942 and reported to the 131st Quartermaster Truck Regiment at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, on 25 June.  Later he went on to Harvard and then to Camp Myles Standish.  In November 1942, the four chaplains were all together for the first time.

The Dorchester was as austere and dank as any of the tubs ferrying troops to and from the war zone across the North Atlantic—a suitable venue for one to suffer the dreaded anxiety of an uncertain future in war or to blissfully contemplate the safety, comforts, and familial joy of home.

Originally commissioned the SS Dorchester on 20 March 1926, it was one of three identical vessels built by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company for the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company.  As a cruise ship, it plied a regular coastal route between Miami and Boston with its crew of ninety and up to 314 passengers.  She weighed in at 5,649 tons, was 368 feet long by 52 feet wide, with a 19 foot draft.

With war looming, the U.S. government requisitioned the Dorchester and had the Atlantic, Gulf and West Indies Steamship Company in New York convert her into a troop transport.  Stripped of its original cruise ship luxuries, the USAT Dorchester was outfitted to carry 750 troops, with a complement of 130 crew and twenty-three Navy armed guards.

On 29 January 1943, the Dorchester departed St. John’s, Newfoundland, for its fifth north Atlantic voyage, hitting bad weather almost as soon as it entered open water.  In addition to the Dorchester, the freighters Biscaya and Lutz, escorted by U. S. Coast Guard cutters USCGC Tampa, USCGC Escanaba, and USCGC Comanche comprised convoy SG 19.  Its passengers included 597 soldiers and 171 civilians bound for airbases in Greenland.  In its holds were one thousand tons of equipment, food, and cargo.  Merchant Marine Captain Hans Danielsen skippered the ship while Army Captain Preston S. Krecker, Jr., commanded the troops.  First Sergeant Warish was the senior noncommissioned officer aboard.

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After the Dorchester slipped beneath the waves on 3 February 1943, the USCGC Escanaba and other Coast Guard vessels rescued dozens of survivors from the doomed Army troopship. (U.S. Coast Guard History Office)

Warish, as the ship’s first sergeant, warranted a stateroom.  As he was settling in, Father Washington, his next door neighbor, paid him a visit.  As a lapsed Catholic, he was ambivalent about making the acquaintance of the priest but recognized the value of having chaplains on board during the perilous voyage.  After exchanging small talk, Warish excused himself to inspect the ship.

While on his rounds, he observed the chaplains in a “football huddle” engaged in an animated discussion.  Seeing Warish, they asked for his help in getting the message out about religious services and plans for an amateur talent contest, which they hoped would serve as a useful diversion for the troops who had nothing to do except worry while transiting through “Torpedo Junction,” as the stretch of dangerous waters was known.

Despite heavy security, there were few secrets in St. John’s.  German authorities had become aware that convoy SG-19 was bound for Greenland, so four U-Boats took up stations along its route.  One of those was U-233, on her maiden voyage, commanded by twenty-six-year-old Lieutenant Commander Karl-Jürg Wächter.  In the fog and darkness of 3 February, U-233 floated on the surface as Wächter, binoculars raised to his eyes, studied the dark silhouettes of SG-19 passing in the distance.

Earlier, U-233 survived a depth charge attack brought about by the sonar indications of the escorts.  When submerged, U-boats could be detected by sonar, but when on the surface, the escorts were blind to their presence because they lacked radar.  As a result, Wächter used that advantage, along with the haze and darkness, to keep pace with the convoy.

All the ships of SG-19 knew that a U-boat was in the area.  The evening before Captain Danielsen of the Dorchester announced over the ship’s public address system, “Now here this:  This concerns every soldier.  Now here this:  Every soldier is ordered to sleep in his clothes and life jacket.  Repeat, this is an order!  We have a submarine following us…If we make it through the night, in the morning we will have air protection from Blue West One, which is the code name for the air base in Greenland, and of course, we will have protection until we reach port.”

Between the known presence of a submarine and the rough weather that necessitated cancelling the talent show, there would be little sleeping on the Dorchester that night.  The weather abated enough within a few hours that the chaplains quickly threw together an impromptu party in the main mess area.  Many of the soldiers attended, remaining until about 2330.  First Sergeant Warish skipped the party, choosing instead to share the hardship of soldiers assigned to lookout positions out on the open deck in the thirty-six-degree weather.

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The Chaplain’s Medal for Heroism, also called the Chaplain’s Medal of Honor and the Four Chaplains Medal, authorized by Congress in 1960, commemorates the actions of the Four Chaplains. The medal was presented to the Four Chaplains’ next of kin on 18 January 1961 at Fort Myer, Virginia, by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

The chaplains bid good night to the men by reminding them of Captain Danielsen’s warning about wearing all their clothes, including boots and gloves, along with life jackets to bed.  After the party, three of the chaplains made the rounds of the ship in an attempt to raise men’s spirits.  Meanwhile, Father Washington said mass in the mess area that was attended by men of many faiths.

Earlier that night, Captain Krecker had called his men together in the hold.  He repeated Captain Danielsen’s earlier warning. “This will be the most dangerous part of our mission,” he said.  “We’re coming through the storm and now we’re in calm waters.  And they can really spot us out here.”  He finished with the admonition to wear life jackets, telling the men that they were not in a “beauty contest.”

As the clock ticked past midnight, many began to breathe easier with the knowledge that they were near safe waters and would soon be under an umbrella of protection from Greenland-based planes.  Warish was making the rounds among the troops.  Aboard U-233, torpedo man Erich Pässler prepared to fire three torpedoes.  Within minutes, the three deadly fish were in the water heading toward the shadow creeping past at a distance of 1,000 yards.

Warish had just looked at his watch when, at approximately 0055 hours, one of the torpedoes ripped into the Dorchester’s starboard side.  The ensuing explosion rent a hole near the engine room from below the waterline to the top deck.  The lights went out, steam pipes split, and bunks collapsed like cards one on top of another.  The sounds of screaming and the smell of gunpowder and ammonia filled the air.  The initial explosion killed dozens outright, and a wave of cold water entering the ship quickly drowned dozens more.  Nearly one-third those aboard died in the first moments of the disaster.

Men, many of whom had disobeyed Captain Danielsen’s orders to wear their clothes and life preservers, wandered through the darkened and mangled passageways searching for their clothes.  Warish lay trapped under some bunks that pinned his leg to the deck.  Within a minute, the ship listed thirty degrees to starboard.  Panicked men rushed topside, but many never made it through blocked passageways.  Others were overcome by ammonia fumes.  Those who did emerge into the freezing night faced tough choices.  Several life boats could not be deployed due to the Dorchester’s dramatic list.  Many others were so fouled by ice that they could not be freed before the ship went under.

In the middle of the confusion on deck was Roy Summers, a Navy gunner stationed on the Dorchester.  A few months earlier, he had survived the sinking of the Dorchester’ssister ship, the Chatham, and he believed that he would survive this attack.  Resigned to abandoning ship, he ran aft toward the stern, but thought better of it when he realized that jumping there would bring certain death from the still turning propellers, which had already breached the surface and claimed the lives of several who had already jumped.  Turning around, he witnessed two of the chaplains handing out life vests and assisting soldiers as they slid down ropes to the sea below.   One hysterical soldier grabbed a chaplain as if to choke him.  Summers wrestled the soldier away from the chaplain and watched the soldier run down the deck toward the rising water and probably to his death.  Summers then climbed over the railing and went down a rope into the ocean.

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Several memorials dedicated to the Four Chaplains can be found across the United States, including this one, designed by Constantino Nivola and dedicated in 1955, at National Memorial Park in Falls Church, Virginia. (Army Historical Foundation)

Elsewhere on the top deck, Father Washington gave absolution to soldiers as they went over the side.  Private First Class Charles Macli, a former professional boxer, unsuccessfully urged Washington to go over the side with the men.  Instead, Chaplain Washington remained aboard as Macli slid into the cold water.  Another soldier, Walter Miller, saw knots of men in seemingly catatonic states bunched against the railings of the listing ship.  Too afraid to jump into the sea, they awaited the inevitability of being swallowed by it.  Over the din, he heard a terror-filled plaintive voice repeating, “I can’t find my life jacket.”  Turning toward that voice, Miller clearly heard Chaplain Fox say, “Here’s one, soldier.”  Then Miller witnessed Fox remove his life jacket and put it on the soldier.  At the same time, Navy Lieutenant John Mahoney cursed himself for leaving his gloves in his quarters.  Chaplain Goode stopped him from returning for the gloves, saying, “Don’t bother Mahoney.  I have another pair.  You can have these.”  Goode then removed the gloves from his hands and gave them to Mahoney.  Mahoney later realized that a man preparing to abandon ship probably would not carry a second pair of gloves.

Many of the survivors reported similar encounters with one or more of the chaplains.  They seemed to be everywhere on the deck until the very end.  Many survivors reported that the four chaplains locked arms and prayed in unison as the ship sank.  Whether this part is accurate is unimportant, for the truth is that these four Army chaplains sacrificed themselves for the soldiers and the God that they served.

First Sergeant Warish freed himself after a ten-minute struggle.  He dragged himself through the passageways and over the side in time to see the Dorchester sink below the waves just twenty-five minutes after being struck by the torpedo.  After some confusion, the Coast Guard began rescue operations, saving 230 of the nearly 900 aboard and losing one Coast Guardsman in the process.

In the aftermath of the disaster, the story of the Four Chaplains garnered popular notice.  Many thought that they should be awarded the Medal of Honor.  Instead, on 19 December 1944, they were each awarded the Purple Heart and the Distinguished Service Cross.  In 1948, the U.S. Post Service issued a commemorative stamp in their honor, and Congress designated 3 February as “Four Chaplains Day.”  Twelve years later, Congress created the Four Chaplains’ Medal, which was presented to their survivors by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker on 18 January 1961 at Fort Myer, Virginia.

Today, one can find memorials to the Four Chaplains all across the nation.  Several organizations exist to further their memory, including the Chapel of the Four Chaplains in Philadelphia and the Immortal Chaplains Foundation in Minnesota.  Chapels, bridges, memorials, and plaques honoring the Four Chaplains are found in so many locations, including a stained glass window in the Pentagon, that it is impossible to list them all here.

First Sergeant Warish was rescued.  He recovered from his injuries enough to continue serving the Army, although he suffered chronic pain for the rest of his life.  He rose to the rank of sergeant major before retiring in 1963.  In 2002, he was injured in a car accident and for the remaining year of his life he could only move with the help of a walker.  He died in September 2003.

U-233 escaped after firing the fatal torpedo.  About a year later, it was sunk by British destroyers with the loss of most of its crew.  One survivor, Kurt Rosser, was interned in a Mississippi prisoner of war camp, where he picked cotton and sandbagged levees against flooding.  In 2000, the Immortal Chaplains Foundation brought him and the U-233first officer, Gerhard Buske, to Washington, DC.  There they attended memorial ceremonies, toured the Holocaust Museum, and visited with Theresa Goode Kaplan, widow of Chaplain Goode, who reluctantly accepted the visitors’ expressions of respect for her husband and regret for her suffering.  Four years later, Buske spoke at the foundation’s sixtieth-anniversary ceremony, saying, “we ought to love when others hate…we can bring faith where doubt threatens; we can awaken hope where despair exists; we can light up a light where darkness reigns; we can bring joy where sorrow dominates.”  Those words, as well as any, represent the lessons of the Four Chaplains

 

About The Army Historical Foundation

The Army Historical Foundation is the designated official fundraising organization for the National Museum of the United States Army. We were established in 1983 as a member-based, charitable 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. We seek to educate future Americans to fully appreciate the sacrifices that generations of American Soldiers have made to safeguard the freedoms of this Nation. Our funding helps to acquire and conserve Army historical art and artifacts, support Army history educational programs, research, and publication of historical materials on the American Soldier, and provide support and counsel to private and governmental organizations committed to the same goals.


Do you believe in Freedom or Democracy?

A commentary by Bob Barney

TaxesDo you believe in democracy? What form of government is the United States? Is it a democracy, a Republic, or something else that unfortunately has been lost in the past few generations? Constitutionally speaking, America is what is called a "constitutional Republic form of democracy.” We are not as many scholars understand, a purely democratic society. Our forefathers knew that democracies can never last more than a few generations and that the only hope of our government to survive many generations was to form a public form of government. This begs the question, what were they trying to protect? What was the founding principle of our way of life that our forefathers wanted to preserve, protect, and maintain? We see that it was a democratic form of government. So is the Republic of the United States of America the end means of what the founding fathers were attempting to create back in 1789? No, friends, the most important principle to the founding of this nation is a biblical principle which you probably are unaware of. The word “democracy” or "Republic” is not found in the Bible. We all know the Bible is God's word to us and we know what was brought forth in the Gospel of Jesus Christ was concerning a coming Kingdom of God. This Kingdom would occur on earth upon his return at the end of this age. Christ died for our sins--many know this, but in addition, do you know what else Christ bought for us with His death? He brought us freedom. Freedom from sin, freedom from the devil, and freedom from the penalty of death by his resurrection! (see: Freedom and the Bible)

Continue reading "Do you believe in Freedom or Democracy?" »


He Enlisted at 14, Went to Vietnam at 15 and Died a Month Later

Dan Bullock, a boy from Brooklyn, was the youngest American killed in the war.

image from static01.nyt.com

Dan Bullock was killed instantly, seems to be the case. The night of June 6, 1969. An article on the front page of The New York Times in 1969 explained: “Dan Bullock was born Dec. 21, 1953. When he enlisted in the Marines last Sept. 18, he was 14. Pentagon officials said his birth certificate had been adjusted to show the year as 1949 so that he could pass for 18.”

image from static01.nyt.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Despite his youth, he was physically solid — at about 5 feet 9 inches and 160 pounds — and managed to get through the notoriously grueling Marine boot camp at Parris Island, S.C., and then on to Vietnam without being found out.

Read the rest of the sad story HERE

 


Tax and Spend Biden- The Coming Crash That will leave many dead

Despite Joe Biden's repeated promises to never raise taxes on anyone earning less than $400,000 per year, he is now working with Democrats in Congress to hammer the middle class with devastating tax increases.. At issue is the so-called American Jobs Plan (AJP), a $2 trillion boondoggle of progressive wish-list spending, combined with a $2.5 trillion taxincrease.

Can Joe Biden cover the cost of his $6 trillion spending spree?

The American Rescue Plan, worth $1.9 trillion, has already passed the senate in a 50-49 party-lines vote held in March. The American Jobs Plan worth around $2.3 trillion and the The American Families Plan worth $1.8 trillion take the combined total of Biden's three plans to $6 trillion, that will be spent over roughly 10 years. In order to pay for this, the president announced a series of tax initiatives that would raise cooperation tax, increase funding to the IRS to chase town tax evaders, raise marginal income tax for the top 1 percent of earners, and raise capital gains and dividend tax rates for those earning over $1 million per year. Biden also intends to crack down on multinationals, forcing US firms that make money overseas and companies who use offshore businesses to pay significantly more in taxes under his 'Made in America' tax plan. However, according to estimates, Biden's tax increases would not be enough to cover the full $6 trillion in spending across the three plans, only raising $2.37 trillion, or enough to cover just one of the three spending plans.

PIERS MORGAN: Somebody's got to pay for Santa Joe's insane $6TRILLION spending spree

President Biden seems to have appointed himself as the nation's chief croupier - dishing out free chips to everyone, on the (White) House, writes PIERS MORGAN. He's only been in power for 100 days but has so far pledged to give away $20,000 for every single American citizen - a commitment of $60 billion for each day in office. Last night, he gave his first address to a joint session of Congress and enthusiastically pitched his $2.3 trillion 'blue-collar blueprint' American Jobs Plan and $1.8 trillion investment into 'human infrastructure'. Biden insisted he wasn't going to 'punish' anyone to pay for all this - well, apart from the rich - and definitely wasn't going to add to the tax burden for the middle class. But as he spoke, he looked and sounded more and more like Santa Claus - a benign, smiling old man announcing he was giving away free gifts to everyone.

Chinese whistleblower Yang Jisheng's book, 'Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine 1958-1962,' is a powerful reminder that collectivism is evil:

"

The village felt like a ghost town. There were no animals running around, not even rats, and no living trees either. “All had been stripped of their leaves and bark by starving peasants,” he records. People ate whatever they could get their hands on, and when they were not searching for food, they barely had any energy to move or make a sound.

At the little hut his father lived in, Yang saw his father’s “eyes sunken and lifeless, his face gaunt, the skin creased and flaccid,” which reminded Yang of the human skeleton he saw in an anatomy class. Yang suddenly realized that “the term skin and bones referred to something so horrible and cruel.” Yang tried to feed his father some peanut sprouts—the only thing he could find—but his father was too weak to even swallow. He died three days later.

Despite losing his father to starvation, Yang “felt no suspicion and completely accepted what had been instilled in me by the Communist Party and the Communist Youth League.” Since the founding of Communist China in 1949, the CCP had sealed China off from the outside world. The government had a domestic monopoly on information and facts.

“From nursery school to university, the chief mission was to inculcate a Communist worldview in the minds of all students. The social science research institutes, cultural groups, news organs, and schools all became tools for the party’s monopoly on thought, spirit, and opinion, and were continuously engaged in molding China’s youth.” Furthermore, “all views diverging from those of the party were nipped in the bud.”

How to Kill 36 Million People Read More


When War is Swell: the Carlyle Group and the Middle East at War BY JEFFREY ST. CLAIR

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Paris.

A couple of weeks ago, in a dress rehearsal for her next presidential campaign, Hillary Clinton, the doyenne of humanitarian interventionism, made a pit-stop at the Carlyle Group to brief former luminaries of the imperial war rooms about her shoot-first-don’t-ask-questions foreign policy.

For those of you who have put the playbill of the Bush administration into a time capsule and buried it beneath the compost bin, the Carlyle Group is essentially a hedge fund for war-making and high tech espionage. They are the people who brought you the Iraq war and all those intrusive niceties of Homeland Security. Call them the Knights of the Revolving Door, many of Carlyle’s executives and investors having spent decades in the Pentagon, the CIA or the State Department, before cashing in for more lucrative careers as war profiteers. They are now licking their chops at the prospect for an all-out war against Syria, no doubt hoping that the conflagration will soon spread to Lebanon, Jordan and, the big prize, Iran.

For a refresher course on the sprawling tentacles of the Carlyle Group, here’s an essay that first appeared in CounterPunch’s print edition in 2004. Sadly, not much has changed in the intervening years, except these feted souls have gotten much, much richer.  — JSC

Across all fronts, Bush’s war deteriorates with stunning rapidity. The death count of American soldiers killed in Iraq will soon top 1000, with no end in sight. The members of the handpicked Iraqi Governor Council are being knocked off one after another. Once loyal Shia clerics, like Ayatollah Sistani, are now telling the administration to pull out or face a nationalist insurgency. The trail of culpability for the abuse, torture and murder of Iraqi detainees seems to lead inexorably into the office of Donald Rumsfeld. The war for Iraqi oil has ended up driving the price of crude oil through the roof. Even Kurdish leaders, brutalized by the Ba’athists for decades, are now saying Iraq was a safer place under their nemesis Saddam Hussein. Like Medea whacking her own kids, the US turned on its own creation, Ahmed Chalabi, raiding his Baghdad compound and fingering him as an agent of the ayatollahs of Iran. And on and on it goes.

Still not all of the president’s men are in a despairing mood. Amid the wreckage, there remain opportunities for profit and plunder. Halliburton and Bechtel’s triumphs in Iraq have been chewed over for months. Less well chronicled is the profiteering of the Carlyle Group, a company with ties that extend directly into the Oval Office itself.

Even Pappy Bush stands in line to profit handsomely from his son’s war making. The former president is on retainer with the Carlyle Group, the largest privately held defense contractor in the nation. Carlyle is run by Frank Carlucci, who served as the National Security advisor and Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan. Carlucci has his own embeds in the current Bush administration. At Princeton, his college roommate was Donald Rumsfeld. They’ve remained close friends and business associates ever since. When you have friends like this, you don’t need to hire lobbyists..

Bush Sr. serves as a kind of global emissary for Carlyle. The ex-president doesn’t negotiate arms deals; he simply opens the door for them, a kind of high level meet-and-greet. His special area of influence is the Middle East, primarily Saudi Arabia, where the Bush family has extensive business and political ties. According to an account in the Washington Post, Bush Sr. earns around $500,000 for each speech he makes on Carlyle’s behalf.

One of the Saudi investors lured to Carlyle by Bush was the BinLaden Group, the construction conglomerate owned by the family of Osama bin Laden. According to an investigation by the Wall Street Journal, Bush convinced Shafiq Bin Laden, Osama’s half brother, to sink $2 million of BinLaden Group money into Carlyle’s accounts. In a pr move, the Carlyle group cut its ties to the BinLaden Group in October 2001.

One of Bush Sr.’s top sidekicks, James Baker, is also a key player at Carlyle. Baker joined the weapons firm in 1993, fresh from his stint as Bush’s secretary of state and chief of staff. Packing a briefcase of global contacts, Baker parlayed his connections with heads of state, generals and international tycoons into a bonanza for Carlyle. After Baker joined the company, Carlyle’s revenues more than tripled.

Like Bush Sr., Baker’s main function was to manage Carlyle’s lucrative relationship with Saudi potentates, who had invested tens of millions of dollars in the company. Baker helped secure one of Carlyle’s most lucrative deals: the contract to run the Saudi offset program, a multi-billion dollar scheme wherein international companies winning Saudi contracts are required under terms of the contracts to invest a percentage of the profits in Saudi companies.

Baker not only greases the way for investment deals and arms sales, but he also plays the role of seasoned troubleshooter, protecting the interests of key clients and regimes. A case in point: when the Justice Department launched an investigation into the financial dealings of Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz, the Saudi prince sought out Baker’s help. Baker is currently defending the prince in a trillion dollar lawsuit brought by the families of the victims of the 9/11 attacks. The suit alleges that the prince used Islamic charities as pass-throughs for shipping millions of dollars to groups linked to al-Qaeda.

Baker and Carlyle enjoy another ace in the hole when it comes to looking out for their Saudi friends. Baker prevailed on Bush Jr. to appoint his former law partner, Bob Jordan, as the administration’s ambassador to Saudi Arabia.

Carlyle and its network of investors are well positioned to cash in on Bush Jr.’s expansion of the defense and Homeland Security department budgets. Two Carlyle companies, Federal Data Systems and US Investigations Services, hold multi-billion dollar contracts to provide background checks for commercial airlines, the Pentagon, the CIA and the Department of Homeland Security. USIS was once a federal agency called the Office Federal Investigations, but it was privatized in 1996 at the urging of Baker and others and was soon gobbled up by Carlyle. The company is now housed in “high-security, state-of-the-art, underground complex” in Annandale, Pennsylvania. USIS now does 2.4 million background checks a year, largely for the federal government.

Another Carlyle subsidiary, Vought Aircraft, holds more than a billion dollars in federal contracts to provide components for the C-117 transport plane, the B-2 bomber and the Apache attack helicopter. Prior to 2001, Vought had fallen on hard times. Just before the 9/11 attacks, Vought announced that it was laying off more than 1,200 employees, more than 20 percent of its workforce. But business picked up briskly following the airstrikes on Afghanistan and the war on Iraq.

In 2002, Carlyle sold off its biggest holding, United Defense. The sale may have been prompted by insider information leaked to Carlucci by his pal Rumsfeld. In early 2001, Carlyle was furiously lobbying the Pentagon to approve contracts for the production of United Defense’s Crusader artillery system, an unwieldy and outrageously expensive super-cannon. Rumsfeld disliked the Crusader and had it high on his hit list of weapon systems to be killed off in order to save money for other big ticket schemes, particularly the Strategic Defense Initiative.

But, as detailed in William Hartung’s excellent book, How Much Are You Making in the War, Daddy?, Rumsfeld didn’t terminate the Crusader immediately. Instead, he held off on a public announcement of his decision for more than a year. By that time, Carlucci and Baker devised a plan to take United Defense public. The sale to unsuspecting investors netted Carlyle more than $237 million. Six months later, Rumsfeld closed the book on the Crusader. By then the gang at Carlyle had slipped out the back door, their pockets stuffed with cash. United Defense was able to petition the Pentagon to compensate them to the tune of several million for cancellation of the contract. Even when you lose, you win.

So the men behind the Carlyle Group drift through Washington like familiar ghosts, profiteering off the carnage of Bush’s disastrous crusades, untroubled by any thought of congressional investigation or criminal prosecution, firm in the knowledge that the worse things get for the people of the world, the less secure and more gripped by fear the citizens their own country become, the more millions they will reap for themselves. Perpetual war means perpetual profits.

Let’s leave the last word to Dan Broidy, author of The Iron Triangle, an illuminating history of the Carlyle Group: “It’s not an exaggeration to say that September 11 is going to make the Carlyle investors very, very rich men.”

JEFFREY ST. CLAIR is the editor of CounterPunch and the author of Been Brown So Long It Looked Like Green to Me: the Politics of NatureGrand Theft Pentagon and Born Under a Bad Sky. His latest book is Hopeless: Barack Obama and the Politics of Illusion. He can be reached at: sitka@comcast.net.

This essay is excerpted from Jeffrey St. Clair’s book Grand Theft Pentagon  

Jeffrey St. Clair is editor of CounterPunch. His most recent books are Bernie and the Sandernistas: Field Notes From a Failed Revolution and The Big Heat: Earth on the Brink(with Joshua Frank) He can be reached at: sitka@comcast.net or on Twitter  @JSCCounterPunch


The plague that killed 200 million

As world worries about coronavirus, archaeologists find mass grave of 48 victims of the Black Death victims that decimated Europe

It has been over 650 years since the Black Death spread through Europe, but archaeologist are still finding haunting reminders of its rampage. A mass grave of 48 skeletons was recently discovered at the site of a 14th century monastery hospital at Thornton Abbey, Lincolnshire

A new reminder of the Black Death plague that decimated Europe has been unearthed in a Lincolnshire burial site - the remains of dozens of people wiped out 650 years ago.

As the world focuses on the spread of coronavirus, the archaeologists' discoveries shed terrifying new light on the humanitarian disaster that befell the world in the 14th century.

A mass grave containing 48 skeletons, including 27 children, was found on the site of a former monastery hospital at Thornton Abbey. 

Scientists have been working at the site since 2011 but the number of bodies it contains has only recently become clear. 

In addition to the skeletal remains, a Tau Cross pendant was found at the scene that was believed to have treated St. Anthony's fire – a skin condition that made victims feel as if their limbs were on fire.

The Black Death, which ravaged Europe from 1346 to 1353, was caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis that can cause several forms of plague and can be transmitted to humans by fleas.

Black rats, which were abundant along trade routes, acted as carriers of the plague when fleas hitched a ride on their backs.

It is estimated, that some 200 million people lost their lives to this horrific plague that spread across Europe and Asia.

The disease is widely thought to have arrived in Europe after being transported from the plains of central Asia via Crimea transported on merchant ships. 

The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30 to 60 per cent of Europe's population and in total, the plague could have reduced the world population from an around 475 million to between 350 to 375 million in the 14th century.

Such a large burial ground at Thornton Abbey suggests the community was all but wiped out by the sheer number of plague victims, scientists said. 

Researchers believe that victims of the Black Death fled the overcrowded cities and overwhelmed hospitals in Lincolnshire, only to die at the abbey and its hospital shortly after arriving. 

Dr Hugh Willmott from the University of Sheffield's Department of Archaeology, has been working on the excavation site in Lincolnshire since 2011. 

Read More PLUS VIDEO

 

WND EXCLUSIVE The Armenian Genocide and my grandmother's secret

EDITOR'S NOTE: Yesterday; April 24, 2021 is Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day, marked annually to commemorate the genocide of 1.5 million Armenians a century ago, a mega-crime the nation of Turkey has never acknowledged.
Children victims of the Armenian Genocide

Children victims of the Armenian Genocide

EDITOR'S NOTE: April 24, 2021 is Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day, marked annually to commemorate the genocide of 1.5 million Armenians a century ago, a mega-crime the nation of Turkey has never acknowledged.

"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." – Ephesians 6:12

Decades ago when I was very young, my grandmother, Mary Kupelian, told me a haunting story I've wondered about ever since.

As I sat in the kitchen of her cozy little home in Bethesda, Maryland, eating her delicious homemade bread and talking about a frequent topic – the Armenian Genocide, which she and my dad (as a little boy) had barely survived – she shared with me the following enigma.

"The Turkish people are very hospitable people," she said with surprising warmth, seeing as they had murdered her husband and dozens of other members of her extended family, just a few of the 1.5 million Christian Armenians killed by the Turks during the first genocide of the 20th century. Grandmom knew the Turkish people well, not just from having grown up in southern Turkey, but from having returned several times to the "old country" later in life, during more quiescent times.

However, continuing her story, she intimated to me that the Muslim Turks lived under the spell of strange forces.

"They were very hospitable and would invite you in," she said. "But, if a distant signal was given – it sounded something like a trumpet – then they would instantly change, and would attempt to harm you. Yet if the signal sounded again, they would immediately switch back to normal."

"Even," she added by way of illustration, "if they had injured you after the first signal, as soon as the second signal sounded, they would bind up the very wounds they had inflicted on you."

As I said – a very, very strange tale, with overtones of "The Manchurian Candidate" and its post-hypnotic suggestions (remember the Queen of Diamonds?) triggering murderous, pre-programmed behavior.

An Armenian woman forced to march in the desert carrying her child

An Armenian woman forced to march in the desert carrying her child


The Serial Killer who fooled everyone

'Death House Landlady' was an 'anti-social psychopath', psychiatrist claims in new

A new documentary explores how notorious California serial killer Dorothea Puente spent four days on the run after cops discovered seven bodies buried in the backyard of her boarding house.  The grandmother - who was accused of murdering nine people but was convicted of killing three - never confessed to her crimes before her 2011 death behind bars.  Back in November 1988, a tip-off about a missing man led cops to Puente's home in Sacramento before they uncovered the horrors hidden beneath the home. 


MARXIST FOLDEROL Share Tweet Gab Share Email Print Earth Day's real (Leninist) history

By Brian Sussman

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On April 22, 1970, a trio of radical dreamers rolled out the first Earth Day. Their hope was that the well-planned, nationwide event would effectively assault capitalism, free markets and mankind.

The initial concept was conceived by Sen. Gaylord Nelson, D-Wis. Nelson was Congress' first environmentalist activist. He was also the mastermind behind those radical public school "teach-ins" that were vogue throughout the '60s and '70s. During the teach-ins, mutinous school teachers would scrap the day's assigned curriculum, pressure their students to sit cross-legged on the floor, "rap" about how America was an imperialist nation and converse about why communism really wasn't such a bad form of government – it just needed to be implemented properly.

Nelson's teach-in efforts were aided by a young man named Denis Hayes. Hayes was student body president while at Stanford University and well-known for organizing anti-Vietnam War protests. Hayes heard about Sen. Nelson's teach-in concept and eventually helped Nelson institute the practice nationwide.

Rounding out the troika was professor Paul Ehrlich, also from Stanford. In 1968 Ehrlich authored the Malthusian missive, "The Population Bomb," in which he infamously spouted wild allegations that included equating the earth's supposed surplus of people with a cancer that needs to be eradicated: "A cancer is an uncontrolled multiplication of cells; the population explosion is an uncontrolled multiplication of people. … We must shift our efforts from treatment of the symptoms to the cutting out of the cancer. The operation will demand many apparently brutal and heartless decisions," he wrote.

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The Flu of 1918 and lessons learned

First published April 2020!!!!!

c. 1918  A U.S. Red Cross employee wears a face mask in an attempt to help decrease the spread of influenza.

By Bob Barney

If you're unfamiliar with the history of the Spanish Flu of 1918 you may be unfamiliar with its tragic dimensions.  The Spanish flu It infected a third of the people on Earth--from the poorest immigrants of New York City to the king of Spain, Franz Kafka, Mahatma Gandhi and Woodrow Wilson. But despite a death toll of between 50 and 100 million people, it exists in our memory as an afterthought to World War I.  Between the first case recorded on 4 March 1918, and the last sometime in March 1920, it killed 50-100 million people, or between 2.5 and 5 per cent of the global population. Estimates suggest that the world population in 1918 was 1.8 billion.  Erupting in three waves, the killer flu brought about social, political, and economic changes reminiscent of those of the Black Death nearly 600 years earlier. And its impact was global, whereas the Black Death brought disaster largely to Europe and Asia.

The Spanish Flu was one the biggest disaster of the twentieth century.  In all likelihood, the disease killed more than World Wars I and II combined. We Westerners may fail to recognize the pandemic's catastrophic scope because Europe and North America "reported the lowest death rates, on average, so their experiences were atypical." In India, for example, including present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, the rate was ten times that in America. An estimated 500,000 children were orphaned in South Africa alone, and as many as 18 million Indians died in the pandemic, about 6 per cent of its population. 

Why "Spanish"? To read the newspapers of 1918, Spain was hit particularly hard by the virus. On the contrary: 1918 was the last year of World War I and, in an attempt to maintain morale, the United States, Britain, France and Germany suppressed newspaper reports of the illness. Neutral Spain, with no war morale to maintain, did not censor its newspapers; so, to the rest of the world, the flu appeared particularly nasty there.   The "Spanish" flu is a misnomer.  It probably started in either, China, the Western Front in the European War, or as some wonder, the United States. 

It may be difficult for us today to grasp just how different the world was merely a century ago when the Spanish Flu broke out.   Science-based medicine was in its infancy even in the wealthiest countries. What today we call "alternative" therapies such as osteopathy or homeopathy were at least as likely to gain the trust of those who fell ill. In fact, physicians may have done as much harm as good, the Hippocratic Oath notwithstanding. Little wonder. Viruses occupied only a tiny corner of the psychic universe of 1918. They hadn't been seen, and there was no test for them—much less a vaccine or any effective treatment. To compound matters, other epidemic diseases were often raging simultaneously, including typhus and bubonic plague. In many areas, doctors were convinced the flu was the plague.

World War I was a global military conflict from 1914 through 1918. It killed 9 million soldiers, wounded 21 million, and left 7 million disabled. Another 10 million civilians died. Germany and France each lost 80% of their male population aged between 15 and 49. It was called the Great War because it affected people in every continent. It was supposed to be the "War to End All Wars." Instead, it set the stage for World War IIthirty years later. It had 10 lasting impacts that changed the world forever.

With World War I raging, the British, French and German governments downplayed the virus’s spread, fearing negative press might hurt the war effort. Spain, unengaged in the fighting and watching from the sidelines, reported honestly on the disease, leading to the false impression that the virus originated in the country, hence its misleading name. 

In the United States, Wilson, a Democrat, declared all bad news illegal as soon as the U.S. entered the war. A complicit Congress passed The Espionage and Sedition Acts, which made criticism of the government a crime carrying a 20-year sentence. Smithsonian magazine notes that “government posters and advertisements urged people to report to the Justice Department anyone “who spreads pessimistic stories…cries for peace, or belittles our effort to win the war.”” 

Labor organizer Eugene Debs, a hero of Bernie Sanders, was very quickly made an example of. One month after the Sedition Act took effect, the Socialist party chair and repeat presidential candidate gave an anti-war speech before a crowd of more than 1,200 in Canton, Ohio.

“The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles. The master class has had all to gain and nothing to lose, while the subject class has had nothing to gain and all to lose—especially their lives,” Debs said, later adding, “These are the gentry who are today wrapped up in the American flag, who shout their claim from the housetops that they are the only patriots, and who have their magnifying glasses in hand, scanning the country for evidence of disloyalty.” 

Weeks later, Debs was arrested and charged under the Espionage Act with “intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States.” He was sentenced to 10 years in jail, though the sentence was commuted two years later by Wilson’s successor. 

Wilson, who won re-election on the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War,” had created the Committee on Public Information—a wartime propaganda machine—on the suggestion of Arthur Bullard, who once wrote, “Truth and falsehood are arbitrary terms… The force of an idea lies in its inspirational value. It matters very little if it is true or false.” CPI staffers cranked out press releases, often republished word-for-word in newspapers around the country, that ginned up support for the war effort and sugarcoated the situation at home.

The consequences of this campaign would be an unknowable number of American lives. In Philadelphia, newspaper editors wary of disloyalty accusations avoided publishing doctors’ warnings about the public health risks of an upcoming parade. Within 48 hours of the event, thousands in the city fell sick with Spanish flu, but public officials continued to insist it was business as usual. “Bodies remained uncollected in homes for days,” researchers at the National Academy of Scienceswrite, “until eventually open trucks and even horse-drawn carts were sent down city streets and people were told to bring out the dead.”

1918 Baseball players, one batting and one catching, plus an umpire behind the plate, wear flu masks. Nothing shut down in 1918

During this time, no schools were closed, no business' shut down, everything remained open, and while the 1918 H1N1 virus has been synthesized and evaluated, the properties that made it so devastating are not well understood. With no vaccine to protect against influenza infection and no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that can be associated with influenza infections, control efforts worldwide were limited to non-pharmaceutical interventions such as isolation, quarantine, good personal hygiene, use of disinfectants, and limitations of public gatherings, which were applied unevenly.

Wall Street was not affected, business boomed, the media did not report on it and life continued while many died. In fact, health authorities, in an attempt to reduce panic, were known to refer to it as "only the flu."

While I am not suggesting that we should absolutely ignore reporting on Coronavirus, I am saying that we should limit the panic, as was done in 1918. Although I think that too much was done to hide from the public The Plain Truth about the 1918 disaster, I am suggesting that we should today have found a balance of sound ideas, warnings, and absolutely downplaying the media's role in spreading panic, so they can make more money - because this is what is going on today! If you look at the graph below, one can easily see in context a true disaster vs an artificial disaster!  We have a politician and press made crisis on our hands and more harm than good will be the result.

Coronavirus1 click on map to enlarge

In conclusion my advice is simple.  Follow sound medical evidence, pray continually to God, because believe it or not, it is only with God that you will be saved or die, and practice clean living.  Eat only CLEAN FOODS! Did you know God told us what to eat and what not to eat 6,000 years ago?  Pork and shellfish IS NOT ON GOD's Menu!  Neither are bats, snakes and dogs.  A very good article can be read on this entire subject HERE.  God knows what is healthy for us, as God made us!  Yes this is a corny idea in a world of modern science and anti-godism, but again, it's The Plain Truth. God exists, God kills, and allows killing, and also saves whomever God wants to!  One of the names in the Bible for God is Jehovah Rapha – The LORD who heals. Jehovah is translated as “The Existing One” or “Lord.” The chief meaning of Jehovah, or Yahweh is derived from the Hebrew word Havah meaning “to be” or “to exist.” It is the proper name of Jesus Christ in His pre-human existence. 

Go to God in fasting and prayer, OBEY God's health laws and continue life in confidence that God protects and heals.


Judge who investigated Titanic disaster wrote in private journal how ship was travelling at 'excessive speed' despite ice warnings

Judge who investigated Titanic disaster wrote in private journal how ship was travelling at 'excessive speed' despite ice warnings, lifeboat drills were cancelled and watertight doors were left open, documentary reveals

Lord Mersey's family has decided to unveil his private diary (pictured on the documentary_ after more than a century
  • John Charles Bigham, 1st Viscount Mersey was head of the inquiry in 1912
  • His diary reveals notes of the mistakes he believed led to the sinking of the ship
  • His family has decided to unveil his private diary after more than a century

British jurist and politician, John Charles Bigham, 1st Viscount Mersey, was charged with investigating the sinking in 1912 that claimed 1,500 lives.

His diary, which detail his reasons for why the passenger liner sank, is being made public after more than a century on a Sky History programme on tomorrow night.

Lord Mersey's notes suggest it was a combination of factors which led to the  tragedy, including how the ship was travelling to fast, how the crew ignored repeated ice warnings and watertight doors were left open as it sank.

He also noted how there were not enough lifeboats - they could only hold half of the 2240 passengers - and lifeboat drills had been cancelled.

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Sequoyah: The Man Who Saved the Cherokee Language and the Giant Tree named after Him!

partly written by National Geographic and  BY LUCAS REILLY

image from images2.minutemediacdn.com

HENRY INMAN, WIKIMEDIA COMMONS // PUBLIC DOMAIN

Sequoyah was one of the most influential figures in Cherokee history. He created the Cherokee Syllabary, a written form of the Cherokee language. The syllabary allowed literacy and printing to flourish in the Cherokee Nation in the early nineteenth century and remains in use today.

In the early years of the nineteenth century, the remarkable inventiveness of one Cherokee man, named Sequoyah, helped his people preserve their language and cultural traditions and remain united with each other amid the encroachments of Euro-American society. Working on his own over a twelve-year span, Sequoyah created a syllabary—a set of written symbols to represent each syllable in the spoken Cherokee language. This made it possible for the Cherokee to achieve mass literacy in a short period of time.  Cherokee became one of the earliest indigenous American languages to have a functional written analogue.

Sequoyah was born in present-day Tennessee in the years preceding the American Revolution. He was afflicted by physical lameness that caused him to limp, and as a young man, he worked as a trader, an industry he learned from his mother. He later became a silversmith and a blacksmith. By the year 1809, he had spent considerable time thinking about the written forms of communication used by European Americans and the power of written language. He began considering how the Cherokee might devise a system of writing tailored to the sounds of their own language. Many of his fellow Cherokees disapproved of the idea of fixing words to paper, and some thought the practice was too close to witchcraft. Despite this disapproval, Sequoyah was determined to give the Cherokee language a written form.

During most of Sequoyah's lifetime, the Cherokee language was entirely oral. According to the Manataka American Indian Council, a written language may have existed centuries earlier, but the script was supposedly lost as the tribe journeyed east across the continent. Sometime around 1809, Sequoyah began working on a new system to put the Cherokee language back on the page. He believed that, by inventing an alphabet, the Cherokee could share and save the stories that made their way of life unique.

At first, some Cherokee disliked Sequoyah’s idea. White people were encroaching further on their land and culture, and they were resistant to anything that resembled assimilation. Some skeptics saw Sequoyah’s attempts to create a written language as just another example of the tribe becoming more like the oncoming white settlers—in other words, another example of the tribe losing a grip on its culture and autonomy.

Sequoyah, however, saw it differently: Rather than destroy his culture, he saw the written word as a way to save it. According to Britannica, he became convinced that the secret of white people's growing power was directly tied to their use of written language, which he believed was far more effective than collective memories or word-of-mouth. In the wordsof Sequoyah, "The white man is no magician." If they could do it, so could he.

Unfortunately, the War of 1812 forced him to put his plans to develop a written Cherokee language on hold. Sequoyah volunteered to fight against the Red Stick Creeks during the war and saw action at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in present-day Alabama. Afterwards, he settled in Willstown (present-day Fort Payne, Alabama) and devoted himself to the task of converting the Cherokee language into written form. 

Sequoyah was monolingual—he spoke only his mother tongue, Cherokee—and thus did not know how to read or write in any language. Despite this, he had an intuitive grasp of the funciton and significance written communication could assume among people who had mastered the skill. His first approach was to draw a visual symbol for every word in the language—a logographic or pictographic approach. Before long, he realized this task would be overwhelming. Instead, he began listening more carefully to Cherokee speech, studying the sound patterns that formed words. He heard vowels and consonants and discerned many variations, finally isolating about eighty-five distinct syllables. He completed the syllabary by assigning each sound a symbol, using a printed Christian Bible for examples of how letters could be shaped.

Sequoyah became further convinced of this in 1813, after he helped the U.S Army fight the Creek War in Georgia. For months, he watched soldiers send letters to their families and saw war officers deliver important commands in written form. He found the capability to communicate across space and time profoundly important.

Sequoyah's first attempt to develop a written language, however, was relatively crude by comparison. He tried to invent a logographic system, designing a unique character for every word, but quickly realized he was creating too much unnecessary work for himself. (According to historian April Summit's book, Sequoyah and the Invention of the Cherokee Alphabet, his wife may have attempted to burn an early version of his alphabet, calling it witchcraft.) So Sequoyah started anew, this time constructing his language from letters he found in the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic alphabets, as well as with some Arabic numerals.

Sequoyah became more reclusive and obsessive, spending hour upon hour working on his alphabet. According to the official website of the Cherokee Nation, people outside his family began whispering that he was meddling with sorcery. By 1821, Sequoyah was too busy to pay the gossip any mind: He was teaching his six-year-old daughter, Ayokeh, how to use the system.

As one story goes, Sequoyah was eventually charged with witchcraft and brought to trial before a town chief, who tested Sequoyah’s claims by separating him and his daughter and asking them to communicate through their so-called writing system. By the trial’s end, everybody involved was convinced that Sequoyah was telling the truth—the symbols truly were a distillation of Cherokee speech. Rather than punish Sequoyah, the officials asked him a question: Can you teach us how to read?

Once accepted by the Cherokee, Sequoyah’s 86 character alphabet—which is technically called a syllabary—was widely studied. Within just a few years, thousands of people would learn how to read and write, with many Cherokee communities becoming more literate than the surrounding white populations. It wasn’t long before the Cherokee language began appearing in books and newspapers: First published in 1828, The Cherokee Phoenix was the first Native American newspaper printed in the United States.

Sam Houston, the eventual governor of Texas, admired Sequoyah's achievement and reportedly told him, “Your invention of the alphabet is worth more to your people than two bags full of gold in the hands of every Cherokee." Today, while the Cherokee language is now considered endangered by UNESCO, Sequoyah's system remains a landmark innovation—and a source of hope for the future.

Now for the rest of the story:

Imagine a large tree. No, let’s try this again. Imagine a large tree. Now imagine this tree as a branch, not a tree, attached to another much larger tree. Now imagine that much larger tree. That is how the giant sequoia do. 

The giant sequoia is named after Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary. Giant sequoia are really big trees, in fact the very largest trees on Earth and the oldest living thing on earth, some more than 3,000 years old!  

A great tree, named after a great Man!


The True story of "TWO-BITS" the Heroic Horse nobody wanted

From the book:True Stories of Dogs and Horses and their Service to Man

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www.temkit.com 21

Two Bits was never in any historic battle, nor did a famous general ever ride him. The highest he ever rose in the ranks was to the saddle of a captain-Captain Charles A. Curtis. Until then, the big bay had known a dozen masters for he was one of a cavalry pool at Fort Craig, New Mexico.

It was between the 1870's and '80's. The United States was trying to persuade the Indians to stay on the reservations appointed to them. The Indians, largely Apaches, Comanches, and Navahos, were not taking kindly to the Government's methods of armed persuasion. Bands of warriors still roamed the high mesas. In the vast emptiness of the landscape, a troop of soldiers could be seen for miles, but the Indians seemed to melt into the background. The old-timers had a saying, "When you don't see an Indian, you're looking right at him."

That was the reason for the forts with their high stockades. They were constantly being raided by the Indians, more for the horses than the men. Among the redskins, it was considered an act of greater courage to slip a horse out of a corral than a knife into a soldier.

It was at Fort Craig that Two Bits caught his first scent of the red enemy. Here, too, he was given his name.

Men cannot be continually on nerve-taut guard without some relaxation, and so a race was arranged one bright June day when the great half dome of the sky was filled with clouds as small and white as baby lambs.

The swiftest horses of the Mounted Rifles had already been chosen by the riders. One horse was left, a big bay. An Irish fifer boy named Cain decided to ride him. As they trotted to the starting line, a soldier shouted derisively, "I wouldn't give two bits for that horse."

Two Bits won by three lengths.

 

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