A History Lesson Feed

20 Years Ago: The West Warwick Nightclub Fire Killed 100 people

 

The Station nightclub owners claim 'sound foam' was 'cheap packing foam' that helped fire

Jeffrey and Michael Derderian (upper right) claim that 'sound foam' installed in West Warwick club was actually 'cheap packing foam' that helped the deadly fire spread, causing 100 deaths and over 200 injuries, the brothers said in their first public interview on the incident with 48 Hours. 'We wanted the full story to come out, not just some of it, and that for people who want to, come to their own conclusion on what happened that night,' Jeffrey Derderian told 48 Hours ' Jim Axelrod, a three-minute snippet of which was released on Thursday. 'We understand the enormity of what happened. People suffered enormously,' Jeffrey told the Boston Globe in a separate interview prior to the premiere of their upcoming 48 Hours segment. 'We don't want sympathy, but it never leaves us.'  


The Pledge of Allegiance A Short History

My thoughts: I thought I would include this little piece of history for those people who watch FOX News and just are never given the facts. Fair and balanced yes, factual? Not always. You see, the original pledge was written by a minister, a LIBERAL, a socialist who hated what he saw when it came to bigotry and hatred, fueled by the Civil War.  In many ways, I think he tried to make a short statement that every American could honor.  So please understand that George Washington never said "under God" when he recited the pledge, because he never heard of it! Neither did Jefferson, Jackson, Lincoln, Grant or Custer!  America by 1892 was a far different nation than our forefather's founded.

The Pledge of Allegiance A Short History

by Dr. John W. Baer

Copyright 1992 by Dr. John W. Baer

Francis Bellamy (1855 - 1931), a Baptist minister, wrote the original Pledge in August 1892. He was a Christian Socialist. In his Pledge, he is expressing the ideas of his first cousin, Edward Bellamy, author of the American socialist utopian novels, Looking Backward (1888) and Equality (1897).

Francis Bellamy in his sermons and lectures and Edward Bellamy in his novels and articles described in detail how the middle class could create a planned economy with political, social and economic equality for all. The government would run a peace time economy similar to our present military industrial complex.

The Pledge was published in the September 8th issue of The Youth's Companion, the leading family magazine and the Reader's Digest of its day. Its owner and editor, Daniel Ford, had hired Francis in 1891 as his assistant when Francis was pressured into leaving his baptist church in Boston because of his socialist sermons. As a member of his congregation, Ford had enjoyed Francis's sermons. Ford later founded the liberal and often controversial Ford Hall Forum, located in downtown Boston.

In 1892 Francis Bellamy was also a chairman of a committee of state superintendents of education in the National Education Association. As its chairman, he prepared the program for the public schools' quadricentennial celebration for Columbus Day in 1892. He structured this public school program around a flag raising ceremony and a flag salute - his 'Pledge of Allegiance.'

His original Pledge read as follows: 'I pledge allegiance to my Flag and (to*) the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.' He considered placing the word, 'equality,' in his Pledge, but knew that the state superintendents of education on his committee were against equality for women and African Americans. [ * 'to' added in October, 1892. ]

Dr. Mortimer Adler, American philosopher and last living founder of the Great Books program at Saint John's College, has analyzed these ideas in his book, The Six Great Ideas. He argues that the three great ideas of the American political tradition are 'equality, liberty and justice for all.' 'Justice' mediates between the often conflicting goals of 'liberty' and 'equality.'

In 1923 and 1924 the National Flag Conference, under the 'leadership of the American Legion and the Daughters of the American Revolution, changed the Pledge's words, 'my Flag,' to 'the Flag of the United States of America.' Bellamy disliked this change, but his protest was ignored.

In 1954, Congress after a campaign by the Knights of Columbus, added the words, 'under God,' to the Pledge. The Pledge was now both a patriotic oath and a public prayer.

Bellamy's granddaughter said he also would have resented this second change. He had been pressured into leaving his church in 1891 because of his socialist sermons. In his retirement in Florida, he stopped attending church because he disliked the racial bigotry he found there.

What follows is Bellamy's own account of some of the thoughts that went through his mind in August, 1892, as he picked the words of his Pledge:

It began as an intensive communing with salient points of our national history, from the Declaration of Independence onwards; with the makings of the Constitution...with the meaning of the Civil War; with the aspiration of the people...

The true reason for allegiance to the Flag is the 'republic for which it stands.' ...And what does that vast thing, the Republic mean? It is the concise political word for the Nation - the One Nation which the Civil War was fought to prove. To make that One Nation idea clear, we must specify that it is indivisible, as Webster and Lincoln used to repeat in their great speeches. And its future?

Just here arose the temptation of the historic slogan of the French Revolution which meant so much to Jefferson and his friends, 'Liberty, equality, fraternity.' No, that would be too fanciful, too many thousands of years off in realization. But we as a nation do stand square on the doctrine of liberty and justice for all...

If the Pledge's historical pattern repeats, its words will be modified during this decade. Below are two possible changes.

Some prolife advocates recite the following slightly revised Pledge: 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all, born and unborn.'

A few liberals recite a slightly revised version of Bellamy's original Pledge: 'I pledge allegiance to my Flag, and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with equality, liberty and justice for all.'


Another possible Jack the Ripper???

Frederick Deeming who killed his two wives and four children could be Jack the Ripper

Frederick Deeming, a bigamist and swindler who spent years roaming the world preying on the innocent and gullible under various aliases, claimed to be haunted by the ghost of his dead mother. The discovery of his wife's body buried under concrete in Melbourne in 1892 triggered an intense manhunt and led back to England where police found the remains of his first spouse and four children in a mass grave. In a new book called The Devil's Work, award-winning journalist and author Garry Linnell traces Deeming's life and crimes across three continents, culminating in a sensational trial that made headlines around the globe. Along the way, Linnell raises fresh questions about the possibility Deeming was responsible for the five London murders attributed to Jack the Ripper, history's most notorious serial killer. A cast of Deeming's head was made after he was hanged in Melbourne Gaol.


Charlemagne, Holy Roman emperor: Europe's Amazing Rise Foretold in Bible Prophecy

image from i2.wp.com

Bible prophecy clearly shows that Jesus Christ will return to establish the Kingdom of God, a literal world-ruling kingdom, on earth. This hope is so fundamental that Jesus instructed Christians to regularly pray, “Your kingdom come” (Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2). Prophecies throughout the Bible give many details about Christ’s return and conditions in the world leading up to that event.

The rise of this final world superpower is foretold primarily in the biblical books of Daniel and Revelation. We’ll begin with what God revealed to the prophet Daniel in Old Testament times.

After years of decline, the Roman Empire indeed received a “deadly wound” in A.D. 476 when Rome’s Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by Germanic tribes led by Odoacer. But that was not the end of the Roman Empire. As we will see, that “wound” was indeed healed and the empire would rise again—and again and again through history.

 

Continue reading "Charlemagne, Holy Roman emperor: Europe's Amazing Rise Foretold in Bible Prophecy" »


NEVER FORGET! Dramatic images of World Trade Centre collapse on 9/11

We have seen the Twin Towers collapse hundreds of times on TV. The steel and glass skyscrapers exploding like a bag of flour, the dust and smoke pluming out across Manhattan. But never like this, from above.

Nine years after the defining moment of the 21st century, a stunning set of photographs taken by New York Police helicopters forces us to look afresh at a catastrophe we assumed we knew so well.

You know but cannot see the 2,752 men, women and children who died at the World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001. None is visible here.

 
World Trade Center in New York

Terror: A tidal wave of dust and debris roars through lower Manhattan as the World Trade Centre collapses on September 11, 2001

 
In this Sept. 11, 2001 photo made by the New York City Police Department and provided by ABC News

Collapse: This image captures the sheer size of the debris cloud enveloping buildings and cars as the towers collapse

 
In this Sept. 11, 2001

The cloud spreads out, consuming the surrounding area and moving out over the East River


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1249885/New-World-Trade-Center-9-11-aerial-images-ABC-News.html#ixzz0fEP1X0HZ

 

also: https://www.youtu.be/goJPKRa2C2k

 

 

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Like Labor Day? THANK THE UNION MOVEMENT!

Two girls protesting child labour (by calling ...Two girls protesting child labour (by calling it child slavery) in the 1909 New York City Labor Day parade. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The History of Labor Day
Like the Day Off? THANK THE UNION MOVEMENT!

Labor Day: How it Came About; What it Means

Labor Day, the first Monday in September, is a creation of the labor movement and is dedicated to the social and economic achievements of American workers. It constitutes a yearly national tribute to the contributions workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of our country.

Founder of Labor Day

More than 100 years after the first Labor Day observance, there is still some doubt as to who first proposed the holiday for workers.

Some records show that Peter J. McGuire, general secretary of the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners and a cofounder of the American Federation of Labor, was first in suggesting a day to honor those "who from rude nature have delved and carved all the grandeur we behold."

But Peter McGuire's place in Labor Day history has not gone unchallenged. Many believe that Matthew Maguire, a machinist, not Peter McGuire, founded the holiday. Recent research seems to support the contention that Matthew Maguire, later the secretary of Local 344 of the International Association of Machinists in Paterson, N.J., proposed the holiday in 1882 while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union in New York. What is clear is that the Central Labor Union adopted a Labor Day proposal and appointed a committee to plan a demonstration and picnic.

The First Labor Day

The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, in accordance with the plans of the Central Labor Union. The Central Labor Union held its second Labor Day holiday just a year later, on September 5, 1883.

In 1884 the first Monday in September was selected as the holiday, as originally proposed, and the Central Labor Union urged similar organizations in other cities to follow the example of New York and celebrate a "workingmen's holiday" on that date. The idea spread with the growth of labor organizations, and in 1885 Labor Day was celebrated in many industrial centers of the country.

Labor Day Legislation

Through the years the nation gave increasing emphasis to Labor Day. The first governmental recognition came through municipal ordinances passed during 1885 and 1886. From them developed the movement to secure state legislation. The first state bill was introduced into the New York legislature, but the first to become law was passed by Oregon on February 21, 1887. During the year four more states — Colorado, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York — created the Labor Day holiday by legislative enactment. By the end of the decade Connecticut, Nebraska, and Pennsylvania had followed suit. By 1894, 23 other states had adopted the holiday in honor of workers, and on June 28 of that year, Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September of each year a legal holiday in the District of Columbia and the territories.

A Nationwide Holiday

The form that the observance and celebration of Labor Day should take were outlined in the first proposal of the holiday — a street parade to exhibit to the public "the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations" of the community, followed by a festival for the recreation and amusement of the workers and their families. This became the pattern for the celebrations of Labor Day. Speeches by prominent men and women were introduced later, as more emphasis was placed upon the economic and civic significance of the holiday. Still later, by a resolution of the American Federation of Labor convention of 1909, the Sunday preceding Labor Day was adopted as Labor Sunday and dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement.

The character of the Labor Day celebration has undergone a change in recent years, especially in large industrial centers where mass displays and huge parades have proved a problem. This change, however, is more a shift in emphasis and medium of expression. Labor Day addresses by leading union officials, industrialists, educators, clerics and government officials are given wide coverage in newspapers, radio, and television.

The vital force of labor added materially to the highest standard of living and the greatest production the world has ever known and has brought us closer to the realization of our traditional ideals of economic and political democracy. It is appropriate, therefore, that the nation pay tribute on Labor Day to the creator of so much of the nation's strength, freedom, and leadership — the American worker.

ALSO:   Why Is Labor Day in September and NOT May????

 

First published in The Plain Truth Sept 2008......


When the Queen Dies... The Plan

Secret plan for Queen's death revealed: Operation London Bridge leaked

The ten-day diary only given a small group of people reveals that all Government flags must be lowered to half mast within ten minutes followed by a TV address and UK tour by Prince Charles and a pre-planned memorial service at St Paul's Cathedral for ministers that will be made to look 'spontaneous'. It sets up a potentially uncomfortable meeting for the Prime Minister tomorrow, as Boris and Carrie Johnson will be meeting Her Majesty this weekend at Balmoral despite courtiers' mounting concerns over protecting the monarch from Covid. 'Operation London Bridge' was leaked to POLITICO after being updated during the coronavirus pandemic with the day she passes away being called 'D-Day'. It was first hatched in the 1960s but has never been published in such granular detail. But there is no suggestion that Her Majesty, 95, is in poor health and there are major questions about how documents so sensitive could be made public. In more embarrassment for the Government, Operation Spring Tide, the closely-guarded plan for Prince Charles' accession to the throne, was also included in the leak. It does not include details of his coronation, which could be several months later. The Cabinet Office will now investigate who leaked the paperwork. Today's leak reveals the first person outside Buckingham Palace to be told the sad news will be the Prime Minister, who will be telephoned by the Queen's Private Secretary, before a 'call cascade' to members of the cabinet, members of the privy council and senior figures including in the Armed Forces, who plan gun salutes across the country hours later. They will all be given the same scripted message: 'We have just been informed of the death of Her Majesty The Queen. Discretion is required'.


When Afghanistan was a land of peace and plenty:

 
British explorer's images from 1955 Afghanistan trip show nation unchanged since time of

British photographer Christopher Balfour went on an epic journey through rural Afghanistan in 1955 with a team of explorers from Cambridge and has shared his photos in a fascinating new book. The team travelled through eleven countries in a veteran Land Rover and explored the little-visited region of Afghanistan. The 120-page book also features excerpts from the diaries which were kept at the time and reveal a side of the now war-torn country that was at the time untouched by modern life and unrest.


The Photo that Changed the Nazi's worry free hiding forever!

Construction site worker realized real identity of coworker Adolf Eichmann and tipped

The photo that helped bring Nazi mass-murderer Adolf Eichmann to justice has been revealed for the first time, alongside the identity of the man who turned him in. That snap - taken in the early 1950s - shows Eichmann standing to the right of Gerhard Klammer, a German geologist who worked alongside the infamous Nazi at an Argentinian construction firm. Klammer's involvement in bringing Eichmann to justice was only revealed last week, 32 years after his death, with his family's blessing. He emigrated to Argentina in the early 1950s to seek work, and began working for the Capri construction company in Tucuman Province, which sits in the north of the country. Shortly afterwards Eichmann joined the same firm, calling himself Ricardo Klement. Klammer knew of his colleague's true identity, and tried to inform German authorities. His first tip-off was ignored, but after returning to Germany in the late 50s, he confided in a friend who was a priest, who passed it onto Germany's most senior Jewish prosecutor, Fritz Bauer. Bauer gave the intelligence to the head of Mossad, and it ultimately led to Eichmann's capture in May 1960.


What happened to the American flags on the moon?

As a symbol of the Fourth of July holiday, it is easy for the conversation this time of year to turn to iconic American flags, like the flag the Marines raised at Iwo Jima; the one firefighters put up at ground zero; and the one that flew over Fort McHenry and was the inspiration for what would become our national anthem.

As the space shuttle program comes to an end this week, CBS News decided to look into the flags the astronauts left behind on six trips to the moon. What's become of them?


Over and over again, the military has conducted dangerous biowarfare experiments on Americans

image from i.insider.com

San Francisco.Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

On September 20, 1950, a US Navy ship just off the coast of San Francisco used a giant hose to spray a cloud of microbes into the air and into the city's famous fog. The military was testing how a biological weapon attack would affect the 800,000 residents of the city.

The people of San Francisco had no idea.

The Navy continued the tests for seven days, potentially causing at least one death. It was one of the first large-scale biological weapon trials that would be conducted under a "germ warfare testing program" that went on for 20 years, from 1949 to 1969. The goal "was to deter [the use of biological weapons] against the United States and its allies and to retaliate if deterrence failed," the government explained later. "Fundamental to the development of a deterrent strategy was the need for a thorough study and analysis of our vulnerability to overt and covert attack."

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July 4, 1826

1FROM:  http://www.homeofheroes.com

Requiem for an American President

 

The celebration of our Nation's 50th birthday was saddened this day in history by the death of our second president, John Adams. It was the eloquent Adams who had so persuasively defended Thomas Jefferson's DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE before the Continental Congress in 1776, ultimately leading to the birth of this new Nation. It may have been the last time Adams and Jefferson agreed on anything.

Jefferson's Declaration was born on June 7, 1776 when Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee laid before the Congress a resolution calling for the 13 colonies to be "free and independent states, absolved of all allegiance to the British crown." Moderates argued against the historic resolution, pointing out that the middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware were undecided about complete separation of the colonies from crown rule. By day's end there was little consensus, but members of the delegation appointed a five-man committee to draft a declaration of independence for consideration at the July 1st meeting.

The task of drafting the declaration should have fallen to elder statesman Benjamin Franklin, but his illness precluded a timely completion of the task. The task then should have fallen to Adams, who argued instead that Jefferson should write it. Jefferson at first attempted to defer to Adams until, in frustration, the Massachusetts delegate grudgingly stated, "You are 10 times the writer I am." Thus Jefferson prepared the draft with suggestions for revisions coming from both Franklin and Adams. The finished document was presented to the Second Continental Congress on June 28th. A poor speaker, Jefferson's written work impressed the Assembly, despite some reservations. The more eloquent Adams vigorously defended the work, which was adopted on July 2nd. That evening Adams wrote his thoughts on the new declaration to his wife, stating in part: "The second day of July 1776 will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival."

Actually Adams was two days off. Editing of the document continued until it was formally approved by 12 of the 13 colonies on July 4th. (The New York delegation abstained from the vote, but approved the Declaration five days later.) On August 2nd the 53 delegates present signed the document, and the 3 absent members subsequently added their names. Among the 56 signers were both of the men most responsible for the Declaration's existence, Adams and Thomas Jefferson.

From that point forward the clashes between Adams and Jefferson were widely known. During Adam's two terms as vice president under George Washington, more than one conflict arose between him and Secretary of State Jefferson. As a Federalist, Adams found his political views quite at odds with the man who would become the leader of the rival Democratic-Republicans. When Washington left the Presidency the battle for a successor was bitterly fought between Vice President Adams and Secretary Jefferson. Adams defeated Jefferson by a 3 vote margin (71-68 electoral votes), becoming our second president. That bitter campaign was renewed in 1800 when Jefferson defeated Adams to become our third President. So intense was their rivalry that, on the day of Jefferson's inauguration Adams was carriage-bound out of the new Capitol City when the new president assumed office. (The recent death of his son in New York provided a convenient excuse not to attend the inauguration of the incoming presidentJefferson served two terms as President after defeating the incumbent Adams, then retired to his home in Monticello. Meanwhile from his retirement farm in Quincy, Massachusetts Adams began to write long and elaborate letters to his old adversary. A grudging admiration for each other may have developed in their later years. Nonetheless, Adams always proclaimed that, though Jefferson was 7 years younger than himself...

 "I will out live Jefferson."

On his death bed on Independence Day, 1826 John Adams uttered his last words.  They were "Thomas Jefferson survives." 

It is rumored that upon Adam's death the messenger dispatched to carry the news to Jefferson's Virginia home actually passed a messenger dispatched from THAT site to Adam's home, also bearing sad tidings. 

Just a few hours earlier Thomas Jefferson had passed away….both architects of the document that gave birth to this new Nation dead, 50 years to the day from the birth of the country they founded.

 

Footnote:

In 1831 James Monroe, our Nation's 5th President, also died on the 4th of July. In 1850 our 12th President, Zachary Taylor participated in July 4th activities at the Washington monument. It was a blistery day and the president became quite ill. He died five days later on July 9th.

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We Mutually Pledge To Each Other Our Lives, Our Fortunes And Our Sacred Honor

image from www.aspeninstitute.org
When the Continental Congress opened its session of Friday, August 2, 1776, in Philadelphia, the major business of the day was to continue a somewhat moribund debate on the Articles of Confederation. An incidental piece of business was the signing, by all the delegates to the Congress, of an engrossed copy of the Declaration of Independence—a matter which John Adams did not consider sufficiently important to mention in his diary of the day’s events. The great day, to him, was neither that of the signing of the Declaration, August 2, nor that of its adoption, July 4. The day “to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations [he wrote his wife] from one end of the continent to the other, from this time forward forever more” would be July 2—the day the Congress passed a resolution affirming that the states were independent of the British crown.

There was little ceremony about the signing. Fiftyone of the fifty-six delegates were present. The other five signed the document later, in the fall of 1776, except for Thomas McKean of Delaware, who signed it sometime after January, 1777, or—according to some evidence—asiate as 1781. John Hancock, who as President of the Congress was the only delegate to sign the original document when it was adopted on July 4, was the first to sign the engrossed copy. Highly theatrical in temperament, Hancock wrote his name large and bold, commenting—so it was narrated years after—that he wanted John Bull to be able to read it without spectacles. Franklin, the oldest of the delegates, was reported to have responded to Hancock’s worried “We must be unanimous…we must all hans; together” with his breezy “Yes, we must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately.” One of the newer members of the Congress, William Ellery of Rhode Island, who was of a literary bent, sensed the history of the occasion; he stationed himself close to the secretary in order to observe the expressions on the faces of the delegates as they affixed their signatures. “Undaunted resolution,” he reported of all of them.

There is little evidence that the actual signing struck any delegates, other than the impressionable Ellery and the dramaturgic Hancock, as one of the great moments in history. The delegation from Massachusetts, where the war had been going on for well over a year, thought it was long overdue, and Samuel Adams grumbled constantly about its lateness. Elbridge Gerry agreed with him: “We should have declared independence last winter and received a great advantage therefrom…” But Robert Morris of Pennsylvania thought it too early—“a certain premature declaration which you know I always opposed,” he wrote superciliously to Horatio Gates, the military malcontent of the Revolution.

The fifty-six men who were to achieve an immortality, the true dimensions of which seem clearly to have escaped all of them, represented no single stratum of colonial life. They were of varied backgrounds, ages, education, property, and experience. Two were brothers—the Lees. There were also two Adamses, remote cousins, and two Morrises, no kin. There were no father-son combinations, although Thomas Lynch, Jr., was sent by South Carolina to succeed his ailing father, who died on the way home from Philadelphia. And Dr. Benjamin Rush was the son-in-law of signer Richard Stockton of New Jersey.

Some of the signers, like the Adamses of Massachusetts and the Lees of Virginia, had already had broad political experience and had earned a considerable degree of fame. Some, like Franklin and George Wythe, were known and highly respected throughout the colonies. Others were unheard of, chosen as delegates because they were willing to serve—several as last-minute replacements for men who had refused to vote for independence or to support it. Some signed reluctantly. We have John Adams’ word for that: “…there were several who signed with regret, and several others with many doubts and much lukewarmedness.” But none signed casually. They were clearly aware, as Abraham Clark of New Jersey put it, that they would have “freedom or a halter.”

Sixteen of the signers had riot voted for independence when the vote was taken on July 2. The entire New York delegation of four abstained because they had no directive from their indecisive province. Robert Morris, who opposed the resolution, was intentionally absent on July 2, and five other Pennsylvania signers were elected only late in July to bolster the shaky delegation. Oliver Wolcott was home in Connecticut ill, and his replacement, William Williams, had not yet arrived in Philadelphia. Matthew Thornton, who signed the Declaration in November, was not elected to Congress until September, and Charles Carroll of Maryland was elected on July 4. William Hooper of North Carolina was absent when the independence vote was taken. All these delegates signed the Declaration without having voted for it, although only Morris had actively opposed it. Only one signer actually voted against independence—George Read of Delaware—although he later became an ardent supporter of the Declaration. (His vote, under the unit rule, would have prevented Delaware from casting its vote for independence had not Caesar Rodney, the third man of the Delaware delegation, rushed up from Dover to break the tie between Read and Thomas McKean.)

Eight of the signers were declaring the independence of a land in which they weren’t even born, and all eight of these were natives of the British Isles. The last to arrive in the colonies was Dr. John Witherspoon, president of Princeton, who came from Scotland only eight years before the Declaration. All the rest of the signers were born in America.

 

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Marilyn Monroe was killed--By the Kennedy's?

Bob Barney: I personally believe Monroe was murdered by an enema of drugs and probably the Deep State (CIA) and the Kennedy's were involved.  Monroe kept a diary which the CIA was horrified about.... It went missing after her death...

Did Bobby Kennedy murder Marilyn Monroe with poison?

The claims are hard to believe... but the source is so solid and credible that you will find this amazing story hard to dismiss. A Los Angeles policeman says an ultra-secret Police Department file names JFK's brother Bobby Kennedy (top centre) as the killer of Marilyn Monroe (L) - and actor Peter Lawford (bottom right) confessed to the cop that he watched the murder unfold...  When Marilyn Monroe shrugged off her ermine wrap and handed it to actor Peter Lawford, live on television at Madison Square Garden, she created a moment of pure theatrical Viagra. The 35-year-old star was revealed at the microphone in a skin-tight, rhinestone encrusted gown that made her appear almost naked. It drew a gasp of shocked appreciation from the audience at an early birthday celebration for President John F. Kennedy (top right), in May 1962. The custom-made, flesh-coloured design by Jean Louis had more than 2,500 hand-stitched crystals, and was so snug that Marilyn had to be sewn into it. She sang 'Happy Birthday Mr President' in a voice aching with eroticism. (Also pictured, police taking away Monroe's dead body.)


In 1925 The KKK Tried To Stop a Columbus Statue from Being Constructed, Now the Left Wants the Same Thing


Op-Ed: Dems Won't Tell You, But Abortion Was Called a Crime Against Humanity After WWII


FDR and Stalin, the History is conveniently overlooked!

By Bob Barney

image from external-content.duckduckgo.com

Winston Churchill was amazed by the love affair between FDR and Stalin. (Stock Photo)

  In her book,  "Roosevelt and Stalin", Susan Butler tells the story of how the leader of the capitalist world and the leader of the Communist world became more than allies of convenience during World War II. They shared the same outlook for the postwar world, and formed an uneasy yet deep friendship, shaping the global  stage from the war to the decades leading up to and into the new century. The book makes clear that Roosevelt worked hard to win Stalin over, by always holding out the promise that Roosevelt’s own ideas were the best hope for the future peace and security of Russia. Stalin, however, was initially unconvinced that Roosevelt’s planned world organization, even with police powers, would be strong enough to keep Germany from starting a new war. 

Wow!   You don't see to many people talking about that do you?  The democrat icon Franklin Roosevelt met with, worked with and even helped one of the biggest butchers of all time stay in power.  It could be said that because America helped to save the USSR from Germany, FDR also helped Stalin murder tens of millions of people, and keep eastern Europe in chains and slavery for 50 years!  The story gets even worse.

Another book, "Roosevelt and Stalin: Portrait of a Partnership" describes the friendship that developed between the two men, and history shows that the friendship bothered our true ally Winston Churchill!  For one thing, Roosevelt pushed for the US to recognize the Soviet Union well before Pearl Harbor, despite the pesky matter of communists despising capitalists and vice versa. And he  supported US help for Russia when “most Americans still thought of Europe’s problems as being as far away as the moon.” The two men bonded by making fun of an annoyed Churchill, and Stalin even teases FDR by acting offended to learn he’s called “Uncle Joe” behind the scenes!  How's that for dissing your allies?

You won't hear anything about this fact of history because:

1 Our modern educational system won't allow such news to fly.  They have dumbed down American children for at least 50 years now.

2 The hate Trump media doesn't want you to know the plain truth about American history, if that history doesn't fit its narrative

3 The DEEP STATE is at war with ordinary Americans, trying to take away our liberties at every chance they can

4 Big Business, Big Politics, Big Banksters and Big Government want to enslave the American worker and force them to work for "Mexican" wages--- maybe even 'Chinese" wages, and that is the Plain Truth!

Since the end of the Cold War there has been considerable reviewing of President Roosevelt’s policies toward the Soviet Union. Most notable has been the essay of Professor Arthur Schlesinger Jr., who has argued that the 1989 counter-revolution in Central Europe vindicates President Roosevelt’s wartime diplomacy, which, he says, had been criticized for its “naiveté” about Stalin. 

Wait, did you read that?c Professor Arthur Schlesinger Jr., says FDR was “naiveté” about Stalin!   Wow, yet we are to believe that Donald Trump deserves to be impeached!

Wake up America. Your media, your government, the globalist, and your police state hates you!  


Today; June 6th--Never forget: D-Day's enormous cost on beaches of Normandy

D-Day was June 6, 1944.

image from www.wnd.com

Over 160,000 troops from America, Britain, Canada, free France, Poland and other nations landed along a 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast of France. It was the largest amphibious invasion force in world history, supported by 5,000 ships with 195,700 navy personnel and 13,000 aircraft.  On that day, the sea along the heavily fortified beaches of Omaha, Utah, Gold, Juno, Sword and Pointe du Hoc ran red with the blood of almost 9,000 killed or wounded. It was a significant turning point in World War II.

The steps which led up to D-Day deserve serious examination.

After World War I, Germany’s economy suffered from depression and a devaluation of their currency. On Jan. 30, 1933, Adolph Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany by promising hope and universal healthcare. Less than a month later, on Feb. 27, 1933, a crisis occurred – the Rheichstag, Germany’s Capitol Building, was suspiciously set on fire. Hitler was quick to use this crisis as an opportunity to seize emergency powers, suspend basic rights, and accuse his political opponents of conspiracy.

He ordered mass arrests followed by executions, even ordering his SS and Gestapo secret police to murder rivals, as during the Night of the Long Knives. Hitler confiscated guns, forced old German military leaders to retire, and swayed the public with mesmerizing speeches.

Using diplomatic intimidation, deception, and Blitzkrieg “lightning” attacks, Hitler’s National Socialist Workers’ Party proceeded to take control of:

  • Austria
  • The Sudeten Region
  • Bohemia
  • Moravia
  • Poland
  • Denmark
  • Norway
  • Luxembourg
  • Belgium
  • Holland
  • France
  • Monaco
  • Greece
  • The Channel Island (UK)
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Baltic states
  • Serbia
  • Italy
  • Hungary
  • Romania
  • Bulgaria
  • Slovakia
  • Finland
  • Croatia, and more

The National Socialist Workers Party operated over 1,200 concentration camps where an estimated 4,251,500 people lost their lives.


Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2018/06/never-forget-d-days-enormous-cost-on-beaches-of-normandy/#SZgo2HEvXLkCi53s.99


The Plain Truth about Memorial Day

NEVER FORGET!

Boy in Marine uniform lies next to his father's grave at Arlington National Cemetery

Christian Jacobs' (top right) celebrated his father, Sgt Christopher James Jacobs (bottom left), who died in 2011 when Christian was just eight-months-old at Arlington National Cemetery this Memorial Day.

Memorial Day History

Memorial Day, originally called Decoration Day, is a day of remembrance for those who have died in service of the United States of America. It's difficult to prove the origins of this day as over two dozen towns and cities lay claim to be the birthplace. In May 1966, President Lyndon Johnson stepped in and officially declared Waterloo N.Y. the birthplace of Memorial Day.

Regardless of the location of origins or the exact date, one thing is crystal clear – Memorial Day was borne out of the Civil War (which ended in 1865) and a desire to honor our dead. On the 5th of May in 1868, General John Logan who was the national commander of the Grand Army of the republic, officially proclaimed it in his General Order No. 11.

Part of the history of Memorial Day will show that in the Order, the General proclaimed, “The 30th of May, 1868, is designated for the purpose of strewing with flowers, or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village and hamlet churchyard in the land.” Because the day wasn't the anniversary of any particular battle, the General called it, The date of Decoration Day.

On the first Decoration Day, 5,000 participants decorated the graves of 20,000 Union and Confederate soldiers buried at Arlington Cemetery while General James Garfield made a historic speech.

New York was the first state to officially recognize the holiday in 1873. It was recognized by all northern states by 1890. Differently, the South refused to acknowledge the day and honored their dead on separate days. This went on until after World War I when the holiday changed from honoring just those who died fighting in the Civil War to honoring Americans who died fighting in any war.

Honor. Remember. Never forget.

Each year on Memorial Day Americans pause to remember the fallen and honor their sacrifice. Military.com pauses to remember the sacrifice of members of the Army, Air Force, Coast Guard, Marine Corps and Navy

RelatedIn Time for Memorial Day, VA and Arlington Remove COVID Restrictions at Cemeteries

Memorial Day History

First established as Decoration Day after the Civil War, the holiday was set aside for families and friends to visit and decorate the graves of troops lost in the conflict.

As time went on, the observance instead became known as "Memorial Day," until 1971, when Congress declared it an official holiday set to fall annually on the last Monday in May. Read more about the history of Memorial Day.

Memorial Day vs. Veterans Day

Service members, veterans and their families know there is a big difference between Memorial Day and Veterans Day. While Veterans Day, Nov. 11, is a day set aside to celebrate all veterans, Memorial Day is a somber holiday dedicated to honor military fallen, with a special focus on those killed during military service or through enemy contact.

Both holidays often include parades, ceremonies and celebrations. But although Memorial Day also traditionally marks the beginning of summer with picnics and parties, many in the military community believe that at least a portion of it should be spent to mourn and honor the fallen.

With the Congressional passage of the National Holiday Act of 1971 (P.L. 90 – 363), it is now observed on the last Monday in May by almost every state.

This helped ensure a three day weekend (Memorial Day Weekend) for Federal holidays. In addition, several southern states have an additional separate day for honoring the Confederate war dead: January 19th in Texas; April 26th in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi; May 10th in South Carolina; and June 3rd (Jefferson Davis’ birthday) in Louisiana and Tennessee .

History of Memorial Day: Red Poppies

In 1915, inspired by the poem “In Flanders Fields,” Moina Michael replied with her own poem:

We cherish too, the Poppy red That grows on fields where valor led, It seems to signal to the skies That blood of heroes never dies.

She then conceived of an idea to wear red poppies on Memorial day in honor of those who died serving the nation during war. She was the first to wear one, and sold poppies to her friends and co-workers with the money going to benefit servicemen in need. See more on the significance of the Red Poppy.

Later a Madam Guerin from France was visiting the United States and learned of this new custom started by Ms. Michael. When she returned to France she made artificial red poppies to raise money for war orphaned children and widowed women. This tradition spread to other countries. In 1921, the Franco-American Children’s League sold poppies nationally to benefit war orphans of France and Belgium. The League disbanded a year later and Madam Guerin approached the VFW for help.

Shortly before Memorial Day in 1922 the VFW became the first veterans’ organization to nationally sell poppies. Two years later their “Buddy” Poppy program was selling artificial poppies made by disabled veterans. In 1948 the US Post Office honored Ms. Michael for her role in founding the National Poppy movement by issuing a red 3 cent postage stamp with her likeness on it.

National Moment of Remembrance

Memorial day history couldn't be complete without the birth of the the “National Moment of Remembrance”, which was a resolution passed on Dec 2000 which asks that at 3 p.m. local time, for all Americans “To voluntarily and informally observe in their own way a Moment of remembrance and respect, pausing from whatever they are doing for a moment of silence or listening to ‘Taps.”


The Four Chaplains and the Sinking of the USAT Dorchester

 

No Greater Glory: The Four Chaplains and the Sinking of the USAT Dorchester

Written By: Command Sergeant Major James H. Clifford, USA-Ret.

In the early morning hours of 3 February 1943, First Sergeant Michael Warish nearly gave up hope as he floated helplessly in the freezing waters of the North Atlantic.  Just minutes earlier, he and the almost 900 others aboard the USAT Dorchester were near safe waters when a German torpedo slammed into the engine room.  Soon, the Dorchester began to slip under the waves.

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John P. Washington was ordained a Roman Catholic priest on 15 June 1935 and entered the Army in May 1942 after being rejected by the Navy shortly after the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

Warish accepted his fate, fully aware that life expectancy in these cold waters was about twenty minutes.  Surrounded by hundreds of his equally doomed shipmates, the blinking red lights of their life preservers reminded him of Christmas lights.  Other than a burning sensation in his throat from swallowing oil-fouled salt water and some minor pain from wounds suffered when the torpedo hit, he mostly felt numb.

Resigned to losing consciousness and freezing to death shortly thereafter, his thoughts turned to the courageous and selfless acts of the four Army chaplains he witnessed just before abandoning ship.  These four chaplains, according to Warish and other eyewitnesses, remained calm during the panic following the attack, first distributing life preservers and assisting others to abandon ship, then giving up their own life preservers and coming together in prayer as the ship disappeared beneath the surface.

The story of these four chaplains, a Catholic, a Jew, and two Protestants, stands out among the countless stories of commitment and bravery that make up the pantheon of the U.S. Army, as one of the finest examples of courage to God, man, and country.  Each, John P. Washington, Alexander D. Goode, George L. Fox, and Clarke V. Poling, was drawn by the tragedy at Pearl Harbor to the armed forces.  Each wanted more than anything else to serve God by ministering to men on the battlefield.  Each felt great disappointment at being relegated to service in a rear area, in this case the airfields and installations of Greenland.  Yet, each, when the moment came, did not hesitate to put others before self, courageously offering a tenuous chance of survival with the full knowledge of the consequences.

Though the chaplains had vastly different backgrounds, their similar experiences brought them together on the deck of the Dorchester.  Each was tested at a young age and came to the realization that his would be a life of service to God and man.  John P. Washington, born in Newark, New Jersey, on 18 July 1908, was eldest of seven children.  He was the product tough of Irish neighborhoods, where he almost lost his sight to a BB gun accident, nearly died of fever, and then lost his sister Mary to a sudden illness.  By the age of seven, John was on the path to the priesthood.  After attending Catholic elementary and high schools, he entered the seminary in Darlington, New Jersey, and was ordained on 15 June 1935.

After short stints in two parishes, he moved to St. Stephen’s in Arlington, New Jersey.  Father Washington was initially turned down by the Navy after Pearl Harbor because of his poor eyesight.  Disappointed but not defeated, Washington went to the Army.  This time, when it came to the eye test, he covered up his bad eye both times when reading the eye chart, correctly assuming that the doctors would be too busy to pay much attention.  He hoped that God would forgive his subterfuge.

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Alexander D. Goode, a native of Washington, DC, followed in his father’s footsteps and became a rabbi in 1937. Like Chaplain Washington, he originally wanted to serve as a Navy chaplain but was rejected. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

In May 1942 Father Washington left for training at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana.  After a month, he was posted to Fort George G. Meade, Maryland.  Eager to serve overseas, he applied for a transfer.  In a letter to Army Headquarters dated 23 September 1942, he wrote, “Once more may I ask you to consider my application for overseas duty.  If I am being too fresh in requesting it, then slap me down.”  The requests finally worked when, in November 1942, he was transferred to Camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts, to await overseas deployment.  There he met fellow Chaplains Fox, Goode, and Poling.

Alexander D. Goode was born on 10 May 1911, the son of a rabbi.  When he was young, his parents divorced.  He went to Eastern High School in Washington, DC, where he earned medals in tennis, swimming, and track, and was an excellent student.  From his earliest days, he planned to follow in his father’s footsteps as a rabbi.  He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1934, followed by a degree from the Hebrew Union College in 1937.  Virtually penniless as a college student during the Great Depression, Alexander contemplated quitting school and giving up on his dream to become a rabbi, but he believed that it was God’s plan for him to pursue a religious vocation.  For much of his youth, he served in the National Guard to help make ends meet.  In 1935, he and his childhood sweetheart, Theresa Flax, daughter of a rabbi and niece of the singer and motion picture star Al Jolson, were married.  His first assignment as a rabbi was in Marion, Indiana.  Later, he moved to the Beth Israel synagogue of York, Pennsylvania, where he excelled in ecumenicalism, crossing the divide between religions.

In January 1941, the Navy turned down Rabbi Goode’s application to become a chaplain, but the Army Air Forces accepted him after Pearl Harbor.  After training at the Harvard Chaplain School, along with classmates Fox and Poling, he was assigned to Seymour Johnson Field in Goldsboro, North Carolina, where he served until October 1942.  In November 1942, he was reassigned to Camp Myles Standish.

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George L. Fox, the oldest of the Four Chaplains, served in World War I as a medic. After the war, he was ordained a Methodist minister and was appointed as an Army chaplain in July 1942. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

George L. Fox was born on 15 March 1900 in Lewiston, Pennsylvania, and grew up in Altoona in a Catholic family.  His rough childhood under the tyranny of an abusive father shaped him.  Determined to escape, he enlisted to serve in World War I before finishing high school.  He also abandoned Catholicism due to his inability to reconcile the church’s teachings with the abuse he received at home and a desire to leave his past behind.  His gallant service in the Great War as a medic earned him the Silver Star, several Purple Hearts, and French Croix de Guerre.

At the end of World War I, Fox held several jobs before entering Moody Bible Institute in Illinois in 1923.  Before graduation, he became an itinerant Methodist minister.  While holding a student pastorate in Downs, Illinois, he entered Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington, graduating with his Bachelor’s degree in 1929.  While holding another student pastorate in Rye, New Hampshire, Fox enrolled in the Boston University School of Theology, graduating with a Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Sacred Theology) and was ordained a Methodist minister on 10 June 1934.  He assumed the pastorate of a church in Waits River, soon moved on to Union Village, then Gillman, all in Vermont.  By this time, he was married and had a son; a daughter followed in 1936.  While in Vermont he joined the American Legion and would become state chaplain and historian.

As with the other chaplains, Pearl Harbor drew him back to the military.  In July 1942, he was appointed as an Army chaplain and returned to active duty at the age of forty-two on 8 August, the same day that his son Wyatt entered the Marine Corps.  After training at Harvard, he joined the 411th Coast Artillery Battalion (Antiaircraft-Gun) at Camp Davis, North Carolina, until he was ordered to Camp Myles Standish.

Clark V. Poling was born into a prominent family that had produced six generations of ministers.  His father was a well-known radio evangelist and religious newspaper editor.  Born on 7 August 1910, Poling was educated in Massachusetts and New York.  In high school, he played football and was student body president.  There was never any doubt that he would become the seventh generation of his family to enter the ministry.

After studying at Hope College in Michigan and Rutgers University in New Jersey, he entered Yale University’s School of Divinity, after which he was ordained a minister in the Reformed Church of America.  His initial posting was at the First Church of Christ in New London, Connecticut, for a short time until he became pastor of the First Reformed Church in Schenectady, New York.

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Clark V. Poling was born into a family that had produced six generations of ministers. An ordained minister in the American Reformed Church, he was appointed as a chaplain on 10 June 1942. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Reverend Poling volunteered to become a chaplain.  Before departing for the service, his father, Dr. Daniel A. Poling, reminded him of the high casualty rate of chaplains in World War I.  The younger Poling downplayed the danger, confident that God’s will was to keep him safe while he served others.  He was appointed a U. S. Army Chaplain in 10 June 1942 and reported to the 131st Quartermaster Truck Regiment at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, on 25 June.  Later he went on to Harvard and then to Camp Myles Standish.  In November 1942, the four chaplains were all together for the first time.

The Dorchester was as austere and dank as any of the tubs ferrying troops to and from the war zone across the North Atlantic—a suitable venue for one to suffer the dreaded anxiety of an uncertain future in war or to blissfully contemplate the safety, comforts, and familial joy of home.

Originally commissioned the SS Dorchester on 20 March 1926, it was one of three identical vessels built by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company for the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company.  As a cruise ship, it plied a regular coastal route between Miami and Boston with its crew of ninety and up to 314 passengers.  She weighed in at 5,649 tons, was 368 feet long by 52 feet wide, with a 19 foot draft.

With war looming, the U.S. government requisitioned the Dorchester and had the Atlantic, Gulf and West Indies Steamship Company in New York convert her into a troop transport.  Stripped of its original cruise ship luxuries, the USAT Dorchester was outfitted to carry 750 troops, with a complement of 130 crew and twenty-three Navy armed guards.

On 29 January 1943, the Dorchester departed St. John’s, Newfoundland, for its fifth north Atlantic voyage, hitting bad weather almost as soon as it entered open water.  In addition to the Dorchester, the freighters Biscaya and Lutz, escorted by U. S. Coast Guard cutters USCGC Tampa, USCGC Escanaba, and USCGC Comanche comprised convoy SG 19.  Its passengers included 597 soldiers and 171 civilians bound for airbases in Greenland.  In its holds were one thousand tons of equipment, food, and cargo.  Merchant Marine Captain Hans Danielsen skippered the ship while Army Captain Preston S. Krecker, Jr., commanded the troops.  First Sergeant Warish was the senior noncommissioned officer aboard.

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After the Dorchester slipped beneath the waves on 3 February 1943, the USCGC Escanaba and other Coast Guard vessels rescued dozens of survivors from the doomed Army troopship. (U.S. Coast Guard History Office)

Warish, as the ship’s first sergeant, warranted a stateroom.  As he was settling in, Father Washington, his next door neighbor, paid him a visit.  As a lapsed Catholic, he was ambivalent about making the acquaintance of the priest but recognized the value of having chaplains on board during the perilous voyage.  After exchanging small talk, Warish excused himself to inspect the ship.

While on his rounds, he observed the chaplains in a “football huddle” engaged in an animated discussion.  Seeing Warish, they asked for his help in getting the message out about religious services and plans for an amateur talent contest, which they hoped would serve as a useful diversion for the troops who had nothing to do except worry while transiting through “Torpedo Junction,” as the stretch of dangerous waters was known.

Despite heavy security, there were few secrets in St. John’s.  German authorities had become aware that convoy SG-19 was bound for Greenland, so four U-Boats took up stations along its route.  One of those was U-233, on her maiden voyage, commanded by twenty-six-year-old Lieutenant Commander Karl-Jürg Wächter.  In the fog and darkness of 3 February, U-233 floated on the surface as Wächter, binoculars raised to his eyes, studied the dark silhouettes of SG-19 passing in the distance.

Earlier, U-233 survived a depth charge attack brought about by the sonar indications of the escorts.  When submerged, U-boats could be detected by sonar, but when on the surface, the escorts were blind to their presence because they lacked radar.  As a result, Wächter used that advantage, along with the haze and darkness, to keep pace with the convoy.

All the ships of SG-19 knew that a U-boat was in the area.  The evening before Captain Danielsen of the Dorchester announced over the ship’s public address system, “Now here this:  This concerns every soldier.  Now here this:  Every soldier is ordered to sleep in his clothes and life jacket.  Repeat, this is an order!  We have a submarine following us…If we make it through the night, in the morning we will have air protection from Blue West One, which is the code name for the air base in Greenland, and of course, we will have protection until we reach port.”

Between the known presence of a submarine and the rough weather that necessitated cancelling the talent show, there would be little sleeping on the Dorchester that night.  The weather abated enough within a few hours that the chaplains quickly threw together an impromptu party in the main mess area.  Many of the soldiers attended, remaining until about 2330.  First Sergeant Warish skipped the party, choosing instead to share the hardship of soldiers assigned to lookout positions out on the open deck in the thirty-six-degree weather.

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The Chaplain’s Medal for Heroism, also called the Chaplain’s Medal of Honor and the Four Chaplains Medal, authorized by Congress in 1960, commemorates the actions of the Four Chaplains. The medal was presented to the Four Chaplains’ next of kin on 18 January 1961 at Fort Myer, Virginia, by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker. (U.S. Army Chaplain Museum)

The chaplains bid good night to the men by reminding them of Captain Danielsen’s warning about wearing all their clothes, including boots and gloves, along with life jackets to bed.  After the party, three of the chaplains made the rounds of the ship in an attempt to raise men’s spirits.  Meanwhile, Father Washington said mass in the mess area that was attended by men of many faiths.

Earlier that night, Captain Krecker had called his men together in the hold.  He repeated Captain Danielsen’s earlier warning. “This will be the most dangerous part of our mission,” he said.  “We’re coming through the storm and now we’re in calm waters.  And they can really spot us out here.”  He finished with the admonition to wear life jackets, telling the men that they were not in a “beauty contest.”

As the clock ticked past midnight, many began to breathe easier with the knowledge that they were near safe waters and would soon be under an umbrella of protection from Greenland-based planes.  Warish was making the rounds among the troops.  Aboard U-233, torpedo man Erich Pässler prepared to fire three torpedoes.  Within minutes, the three deadly fish were in the water heading toward the shadow creeping past at a distance of 1,000 yards.

Warish had just looked at his watch when, at approximately 0055 hours, one of the torpedoes ripped into the Dorchester’s starboard side.  The ensuing explosion rent a hole near the engine room from below the waterline to the top deck.  The lights went out, steam pipes split, and bunks collapsed like cards one on top of another.  The sounds of screaming and the smell of gunpowder and ammonia filled the air.  The initial explosion killed dozens outright, and a wave of cold water entering the ship quickly drowned dozens more.  Nearly one-third those aboard died in the first moments of the disaster.

Men, many of whom had disobeyed Captain Danielsen’s orders to wear their clothes and life preservers, wandered through the darkened and mangled passageways searching for their clothes.  Warish lay trapped under some bunks that pinned his leg to the deck.  Within a minute, the ship listed thirty degrees to starboard.  Panicked men rushed topside, but many never made it through blocked passageways.  Others were overcome by ammonia fumes.  Those who did emerge into the freezing night faced tough choices.  Several life boats could not be deployed due to the Dorchester’s dramatic list.  Many others were so fouled by ice that they could not be freed before the ship went under.

In the middle of the confusion on deck was Roy Summers, a Navy gunner stationed on the Dorchester.  A few months earlier, he had survived the sinking of the Dorchester’ssister ship, the Chatham, and he believed that he would survive this attack.  Resigned to abandoning ship, he ran aft toward the stern, but thought better of it when he realized that jumping there would bring certain death from the still turning propellers, which had already breached the surface and claimed the lives of several who had already jumped.  Turning around, he witnessed two of the chaplains handing out life vests and assisting soldiers as they slid down ropes to the sea below.   One hysterical soldier grabbed a chaplain as if to choke him.  Summers wrestled the soldier away from the chaplain and watched the soldier run down the deck toward the rising water and probably to his death.  Summers then climbed over the railing and went down a rope into the ocean.

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Several memorials dedicated to the Four Chaplains can be found across the United States, including this one, designed by Constantino Nivola and dedicated in 1955, at National Memorial Park in Falls Church, Virginia. (Army Historical Foundation)

Elsewhere on the top deck, Father Washington gave absolution to soldiers as they went over the side.  Private First Class Charles Macli, a former professional boxer, unsuccessfully urged Washington to go over the side with the men.  Instead, Chaplain Washington remained aboard as Macli slid into the cold water.  Another soldier, Walter Miller, saw knots of men in seemingly catatonic states bunched against the railings of the listing ship.  Too afraid to jump into the sea, they awaited the inevitability of being swallowed by it.  Over the din, he heard a terror-filled plaintive voice repeating, “I can’t find my life jacket.”  Turning toward that voice, Miller clearly heard Chaplain Fox say, “Here’s one, soldier.”  Then Miller witnessed Fox remove his life jacket and put it on the soldier.  At the same time, Navy Lieutenant John Mahoney cursed himself for leaving his gloves in his quarters.  Chaplain Goode stopped him from returning for the gloves, saying, “Don’t bother Mahoney.  I have another pair.  You can have these.”  Goode then removed the gloves from his hands and gave them to Mahoney.  Mahoney later realized that a man preparing to abandon ship probably would not carry a second pair of gloves.

Many of the survivors reported similar encounters with one or more of the chaplains.  They seemed to be everywhere on the deck until the very end.  Many survivors reported that the four chaplains locked arms and prayed in unison as the ship sank.  Whether this part is accurate is unimportant, for the truth is that these four Army chaplains sacrificed themselves for the soldiers and the God that they served.

First Sergeant Warish freed himself after a ten-minute struggle.  He dragged himself through the passageways and over the side in time to see the Dorchester sink below the waves just twenty-five minutes after being struck by the torpedo.  After some confusion, the Coast Guard began rescue operations, saving 230 of the nearly 900 aboard and losing one Coast Guardsman in the process.

In the aftermath of the disaster, the story of the Four Chaplains garnered popular notice.  Many thought that they should be awarded the Medal of Honor.  Instead, on 19 December 1944, they were each awarded the Purple Heart and the Distinguished Service Cross.  In 1948, the U.S. Post Service issued a commemorative stamp in their honor, and Congress designated 3 February as “Four Chaplains Day.”  Twelve years later, Congress created the Four Chaplains’ Medal, which was presented to their survivors by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker on 18 January 1961 at Fort Myer, Virginia.

Today, one can find memorials to the Four Chaplains all across the nation.  Several organizations exist to further their memory, including the Chapel of the Four Chaplains in Philadelphia and the Immortal Chaplains Foundation in Minnesota.  Chapels, bridges, memorials, and plaques honoring the Four Chaplains are found in so many locations, including a stained glass window in the Pentagon, that it is impossible to list them all here.

First Sergeant Warish was rescued.  He recovered from his injuries enough to continue serving the Army, although he suffered chronic pain for the rest of his life.  He rose to the rank of sergeant major before retiring in 1963.  In 2002, he was injured in a car accident and for the remaining year of his life he could only move with the help of a walker.  He died in September 2003.

U-233 escaped after firing the fatal torpedo.  About a year later, it was sunk by British destroyers with the loss of most of its crew.  One survivor, Kurt Rosser, was interned in a Mississippi prisoner of war camp, where he picked cotton and sandbagged levees against flooding.  In 2000, the Immortal Chaplains Foundation brought him and the U-233first officer, Gerhard Buske, to Washington, DC.  There they attended memorial ceremonies, toured the Holocaust Museum, and visited with Theresa Goode Kaplan, widow of Chaplain Goode, who reluctantly accepted the visitors’ expressions of respect for her husband and regret for her suffering.  Four years later, Buske spoke at the foundation’s sixtieth-anniversary ceremony, saying, “we ought to love when others hate…we can bring faith where doubt threatens; we can awaken hope where despair exists; we can light up a light where darkness reigns; we can bring joy where sorrow dominates.”  Those words, as well as any, represent the lessons of the Four Chaplains

 

About The Army Historical Foundation

The Army Historical Foundation is the designated official fundraising organization for the National Museum of the United States Army. We were established in 1983 as a member-based, charitable 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. We seek to educate future Americans to fully appreciate the sacrifices that generations of American Soldiers have made to safeguard the freedoms of this Nation. Our funding helps to acquire and conserve Army historical art and artifacts, support Army history educational programs, research, and publication of historical materials on the American Soldier, and provide support and counsel to private and governmental organizations committed to the same goals.