Previous month:
September 2019
Next month:
November 2019

October 2019

Most U.S. dairy cows are descended from just 2 bulls

 

Unlike most dairy cows in America, which are descended from just two bulls, this cow at Pennsylvania State University has a different ancestor: She is the daughter of a bull that lived decades ago, called University of Minnesota Cuthbert. The bull's frozen semen was preserved by the U.S. Agriculture Department.

Dan Charles/NPR

Chad Dechow, a geneticist at Pennsylvania State University who studies dairy cows, is explaining how all of America's cows ended up so similar to each other.

He brings up a website on his computer. "This is the company Select Sires," he says. It's one of just a few companies in the United States that sells semen from bulls for the purpose of artificially inseminating dairy cows.

Dechow chooses the lineup of Holstein bulls. This is the breed that dominates the dairy business. They're the black-and-white animals that give a lot of milk.

Dairy farmers can go to this online catalog and pick a bull, and the company will ship doses of semen to impregnate their cows. "There's one bull — we figure he has well over a quarter-million daughters," Dechow says.

The companies rank their bulls based on how much milk their daughters have produced. Dechow picks one from the top of the list, a bull named Frazzled. "His daughters are predicted to produce 2,150 pounds more milk than daughters of the average bull," he says, reading from the website.   MORE>>>>>


Geological Evidence for the British Throne of David?

Bob Barney: Most people are totally unaware who the peoples of the world are today, when reading the Bible. God talks about the End Times and mentions Ethiopia, Egypt and Assyria. Is The United States, Britain, Russia, Europe, and China mentioned in the Bible.  The answer is YES! (click here for more)

The following article is written by John P Pratt, who has a bachelor's degrees in physics and math from the University of Utah, and a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Arizona.  He has taught astronomy at a state college and keep notes for that class on his web site.  For more about John, click here for bio....

to visit John's website: http://www.johnpratt.com/index.html

He has some very interesting articles, worth the read.

Geological Evidence for the British Throne of David?

by John P. Pratt-

reprinted by permission

Reprinted from Meridian Magazine (2 June 2003)
©2003 by John P. Pratt. All rights Reserved.

Index, Home

Contents
1. King David's Throne
2. Jeremiah and the Scottish Royalty
2.1 Ollam Fodhla
2.2 The Stone of Destiny
2.3 Were Davidic Kings Coronated on the Stone?
3. The Rock of Israel
3.1 The Stone of Jacob
3.2 The Stone of Israel Symbolized Christ
3.3 Rejected by the Builders
4. Geological Evidence
5. Conclusion
Notes

Could the tradition that the British monarchy is the kingly line of David, crowned on the Stone of Jacob, be subjected to scientific scrutiny?

Today marks the fiftieth anniversary of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on June 2, 1953.[1] Surely her half-century reign would be the envy of many ancient kings, who considered one measure of their greatness to be the length of their reign. Great Britain has been a world power for centuries, and heads the Commonwealth of Nations which spans the globe with nearly fifty member countries. How could a few small islands have come to have such widespread influence? Just who are the British anyway?

Queen Elizabeth II on her coronation day.

When one traces the roots of the Britons, Scots, Irish, Welsh, English (Anglos and Saxons), Picts, Normans, and Celts, there is substantial evidence that all of those peoples are of Israelite descent. The tribe of Joseph seems to be best represented, but there is evidence for the presence of several of the tribes. Volumes have been written on that subject,[2] but in this article, it will be taken as a starting point that the inhabitants of the British Isles have a lot of the blood of Israel. Because of this anniversary date of the monarchy, let us focus on the succession of British royalty.

1. King David's Throne

There is a strong tradition that the British royal line is the continuation of the throne of King David of the ancient "United Kingdom" of Israel and Judah. An examination of the genealogies of those kings clearly shows their descent from that royal line. The Lord made a covenant with King David, which was not conditional on David's continued righteousness. The Lord stated:

I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant,
Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations. . . .
I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him:
With whom my hand shall be established: mine arm also shall strengthen him.
Also I will make him my firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth.
My mercy will I keep for him for evermore, and my covenant shall stand fast with him.
His seed also will I make to endure for ever, and his throne as the days of heaven.
If his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments;
If they break my statutes, and keep not my commandments;
Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes.
Nevertheless my lovingkindness will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail.
My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips.
Once have I sworn by my holiness that I will not lie unto David.
His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as the sun before me.
It shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven.
(Psalms 89:3-4, 20-37)

Thus, the Lord covenanted that, notwithstanding their potential wickedness, the descendants of David would rule as kings over Israel forever. If they became wicked, then they could bring calamity on themselves and their subjects, but their kingly line would continue. That's an amazing prophecy. All it would take to break it that the monarchy be overthrown, or to have no royal descendant who could inherit the throne.

So has the royal line continued unbroken? It clearly was continuous for some four centuries until the time of king Zedekiah, last King of Judah in Jerusalem. In 587 B.C., at the fall of Jerusalem to Babylon, King Zedekiah, of the royal line of David, saw his sons slain before his eyes (Jer. 39:6). It was apparently Nebuchadnezzar's attempt to end the succession of Jewish kings, but there was a detail of the Hebrew law with which he was apparently unfamiliar. A princess could also inherit the throne if she married someone from the tribe of Judah (Num. 27:8; 36:3). So what about the daughters of Zedekiah?[3]

We are explicitly told that the daughters of Zedekiah were taken to Egypt along with the prophet Jeremiah and others (Jer. 43:6). There Jeremiah prophesied that all those who fled to Egypt would also be killed, except a few who should escape (Jer. 44:1-14).

That is where the Biblical story of Jeremiah ends, except for the hint that Jeremiah's mission was not only to tear down, but also to plant (Jer. 1:10). No planting is described in his mission in Jerusalem. Where did Jeremiah do his planting? And where was the new kingdom described in the parable given to Ezekiel, where a "tender twig," cut from the highest branch of the high cedar, would be planted and grow into a great kingdom, and that the lower tree would be exalted above the upper? (Ezek. 17:22-24) That tender twig may well have been the daughter of Zedekiah.[4]

For the "rest of the story" we must turn to the history of ancient Ireland. The following account is summarized from authenticated histories rather than mere legends or speculation.

2. Jeremiah and the Scottish Royalty

The earliest known colonizers of Ireland were the Danai, who almost certainly were from the tribe of Dan. They had separated from the other tribes shortly after the Exodus, and founded some cities in Greece, including Athens.[5] About 1200 B.C. a colony of Danai from Greece journeyed to Ireland. Centuries later a group of Israelites called the Milesians arrived and subjugated the Danai. The Milesians were either the same as, or joined with, the Scots, who had migrated to Ireland from Scythia (Scotia = Scythia), near the Black Sea.[6]

The Flag of Northern Ireland combines the Star of David (Pharez) with the Red Hand (Zerah).

The kings of both of these nations came from Judah, from the line of Zerah.[7] Who was Zerah? Judah was given the promise that his children would reign until Shiloh comes (Gen. 49:10, most likely referring to the second coming of Christ).[8] His descendants all come through his twin sons Pharez and Zerah. David came through the line of Pharez, and a similar promise was made to him concerning his descendants, as noted above. But the line of Zerah also produced many kingly lines, including the kings of ancient Ireland. For the purposes of this article, we need only understand that the ancient Irish were of Israel, and their kings were from Zerah, whose symbol was a red hand, or a hand with red thread tied around it (Gen. 38:28). 

The histories say that in about 584 B.C. a Milesian chieftain named Gathelus became a hero in Egypt and married the Pharaoh's daughter, Scota. Gathelus must have given her that name in honor of Scotia, or Scythia, the former country of the Scots. The histories explicitly state that Gathelus was a descendant of Cecrops who founded Athens.[9] My conclusion after doing this research is that the Milesians were not the same as the Scots. The Milesians were most likely a second colony from Greece which came about 1000 B.C., and the Scots probably migrated from the Black Sea after the Assyrian captivity in Israel about 700 B.C. Thus, Gathelus giving his wife the name Scota might have been a way to help politically merge the two groups into one. They moved to the part of Spain now called Portugal and built the city of Brigance and called his subjects Scots. Gathelus and Scota had a son named Eochaidh whose wife Teah Tephi chose Ireland to be their residence. They founded Tara in Ireland, officially called their subjects "Scots" in honor of his mother, and Ireland later became known as Scotia.[10]

The histories also mention that Eochaidh was accompanied by a prophet named Ollam Fodhla and his scribe Berach. Gathelus (or perhaps Ollam Fodhla) prophesied that wherever his marble seat would be found, there would reign one of his descendants over the Scots.

2.1 Ollam Fodhla

The Harp is the Symbol of Ireland on the Royal Flag.

What has all of this got to do with our story? Some versions identify Scota as the daughter of King Zedekiah, Ollam Fodhla as Jeremiah, and Berach as his scribe Baruch.[11] But wasn't Scota the daughter of Pharaoh? Remember that "pharaoh" is simply the Egyptian word for king, and Zedekiah's daughter certainly was a king's daughter who was in Egypt. The traditions also state that the small group who thus escaped from Egypt took with them to Ireland the harp of David, the ark of the covenant, and the stone of Jacob. It states that King Eochaidh was coronated by Jeremiah in Ireland while sitting on the stone of Jacob, and some versions add that his wife Teah was the sister of Scota and also a daughter of Zedekiah. The harp of David became a national emblem of Tara and of Ireland.

2.2 The Stone of Destiny

All the kings of the Scots in Tara were coronated on that stone for over a thousand years. Then about A.D. 500, Fergus of Ireland conquered the Picts who lived in Scotland. The Picts agreed to accept him as king, so he had the Stone of Destiny moved to Scotland, where he was crowned on it. It thereafter also became known as the Stone of Scone (pronounced "Scoon") because it resided at the castle there. True to the prophecy, that land where the stone resided was ruled by a Scottish king, and became known as Scotland. Later, King James VI of Scotland became James I of England, and today Queen Elizabeth is his descendant. Thus, even now that Scotland forms part of Great Britain, it is still true that the Scots are ruled by a monarch of Scottish royal descent.[12]

The Coronation Chair was built around the Stone of Scone (just below the seat).

The Stone of Destiny was moved to Westminster Abbey in London, England,[13] in 1296 A.D. by King Edward I. He had a special "coronation chair" built around that stone, and all of the British kings and queens have been crowned in that chair since, including the currently reigning Queen Elizabeth II. In 1996 the stone was returned to Scotland.[14]

2.3 Were Davidic Kings Coronated on the Stone?

The Coronation ceremony appears to have been taken as directly as possible from the description in the Bible of the coronation of David and Solomon. The monarch is anointed with sacred oil by the Archbishop of Canterbury, trumpets sound, and the people shout "God Save the King" (1 Samuel 10:24, 1 Kings 1:39). The royal crown contains twelve jewels made of the same twelve stones which were in the breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:17-21). These similarities alone do not prove that the kings really are the royal blood of Israel, but such would be expected if the British throne is the continuation of the throne of David. Of course, the royalty also have extensive genealogies to prove their lineage.

It is interesting to note, however, that although the stone is not explicitly mentioned as part of the Biblical coronation ceremony, there seem to be references to it which have been overlooked. Consider the following accounts of when King Joash of Judah was anointed by the high priest Jehoiada:

And when she looked, behold, the king stood by a pillar, as the manner was, and the princes and the trumpeters by the king, and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets (2 Kings 11:14)

 

Then they brought out the king's son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king.
Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD:
And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise.
(2 Chronicles 23:11-13)

He were are told that along with the usual parts of the coronation ceremony, that also the king stood at his pillar, as was the custom at coronation. What does that mean? Some Bible translations are more literal and render it, "The king stood on the pillar." [15] How can one stand on a pillar? It turns out the word translated pillar come from the root meaning "to stand" and can also refer to a "stand" or "platform." The meaning of pillar come from the idea that a pillar is standing up on its end. So the verses could also be saying that the king was coronated while standing on his stand, as was the custom. Was that stand or pillar the Stone of Destiny? If so, just what is it that makes this stone so special? It was called the Stone of Jacob. Just what was the stone of Jacob?

3. The Rock of Israel

The is a strange story in the Book of Genesis, which has been somewhat enigmatic. In the light of knowing about the traditions surrounding the Stone of Destiny, and knowing its size and shape, and knowing that authentic or not, an unbroken chain of kings has been crowned on that stone for centuries, the following history now makes a lot more sense.

Nearly two thousand years before Christ, the Prophet Jacob (as in "Abraham, Isaac and Jacob"), was traveling back to the land of Haran to choose a wife. When he passed by a city named Luz, the following event occurred:

And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep.
And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.
And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;
And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.
And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.
And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said, Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.
And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.
And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it.
And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.
(Genesis 28:11-19).

This account includes several puzzling features. First, a stone small enough to use as a pillow seems hard to imagine being set up as a pillar. Second, just because he had a dream about how the multitudes of his posterity would spread out all over the world, why would he anoint his pillow stone with oil? And what did he mean that the stone would be for God's house? It was important enough that he renamed the place Bethel,[16] which means "House of God." Did it have something to do with a temple?

3.1 The Stone of Jacob

The Stone of Destiny

The size and shape of Stone of Destiny helps make sense of this account, in case it really is this stone of Jacob. First, it is in fact about the size and shape of a big pillow, being about 26 x 16 x 10 inches. It was apparently already a stone which had been cut into a rectangular building shape when Jacob found it. It was probably rejected by the builders because it has a crack in it, so it had been discarded before being finished. If the Stone of Destiny really is Jacob's stone, then it is easy to see how he could stand it up on its end to be a "pillar." Actually, it might have been difficult because it weighs over 300 pounds. Checking the meaning of the word translated "pillar," we see that it means a "stone marker," which often were very large pillars. Most likely this one served mostly as a marker, so that he could find the location when he returned.

Two decades and a dozen children later, Jacob was commanded to return to Bethel. After Jacob returned, and had built and anointed a more permanent altar, God appeared to him there and announced that his name would be changed to Israel, adding "a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins" (Gen. 35:11). This is most likely the time when Jacob decided to bring the original stone with him, though we are not explicitly told that detail. Note that the announcement that kings would descend from him occurred there. It would not be surprising if he was also given to know the future relation that his stone might have to those kings.

The Stone of Destiny has two rings which have clearly been used for transporting the stone by sliding a pole through both rings. There is a groove worn between the two rings which testifies of having been gradually eroded by such transport for an extended period. The stone would have been taken not only to Egypt with Israel, but then also with them at the Exodus and the forty years in the wilderness. Presumably it stayed in Jerusalem from the time of David until the fall of that city in 587 B.C.

3.2 The Stone of Israel Symbolized Christ

Jesus Christ, the Rock of Israel

There is evidence in the Bible the it might well have been this stone which was specifically indicated to have been the "stone of Israel" which symbolized Jesus Christ. During the blessing of Jacob to Joseph, he inserted parenthetically, "from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel" (Gen. 49:24, compare D&C 50:44).

Although I couldn't find any place where the Bible states explicitly that the stone of Jacob accompanied the Israelites during their exodus from Egypt,[17] Paul seems to imply it. He compares physical things such as the manna, water, and a rock which "followed" them to their spiritual counterparts which all symbolize Jesus Christ:

MOREOVER, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
And did all eat the same spiritual meat;
And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.
(1 Corinthians 10:1-4)

Thus, the Rock of Salvation (Psalms 95:1) which shepherded the Israelites, apparently referred to the physical Stone of Jacob. Of course, as Paul explained, it was symbolic of Jesus Christ, who also identified himself as the Good Shepherd of Israel (John 10:11).

If the identification with the Stone of Scone is correct, then it is a very plain looking piece of calcareous sandstone[18], so ordinary that in preparing this article I noticed that several web pages describing the Stone of Scone were scoffing at how plain it is for the royalty to make such a fuss about. Thus, it has "no form nor comeliness" and "no beauty" that is should be desired, which is exactly how the Savior is described (Isa. 53:2). That led to it being "despised and rejected of men" (Isa. 53:3).

3.3 Rejected by the Builders

It may not only have been the original builders who discarded the stone. There is a also a tradition that when it came time to build the temple of Solomon, that the stone of Jacob, which was associated with the house of God from the beginning, should be included. But the builders rejected it because of the crack in it. There seemed to be no way that it could be a cornerstone to a temple.[19] Nor did it seem to the Jews who saw the Savior that there was any way that he could be the Messiah, the cornerstone of their religion. Thus, both were despised and rejected. David prophesied that the stone would be rejected (Psa. 118:22), and Jesus identified himself as fulfilling that prophecy. He explained that the "stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner" (Mat. 21:42, compare Acts 4:11). Knowning the Jesus Christ is the Rock of Israel (2 Sam. 23:3), we have long understood that scripture in the spiritual sense. But now that we learn about the Stone of Jacob, we see that the prophecy might well have been fulfilled in the physical sense also.

Is the Stone of Scone indeed the Stone of Jacob, which Jeremiah brought to Ireland, and on which British royalty has been coronated for so many centuries? Is there any way to verify these traditions, or will such ancient claims remain forever impossible to verify?

4. Geological Evidence

In the age of modern scholarship, it has become fashionable to demote all ancient history and tradition to the realm of legend, myth and fantasy. In many cases, that is like throwing out the baby with the bath water because there is usually a core of truth handed down in legend. In preparing this article, browsing the web for the "Stone of Scone" led to more articles ridiculing the traditions than those giving them any credence at all. Modern writers have assumed the Stone of Scone must have originated from a local quarry.

I am only aware of two scientific attempts to determine the origin of the stone. The first was by Professor Totten of Yale University. In response to suggestions that it had come from a local quarry, he issued the statement:, "The analysis of the stone shows that there are absolutely no quarries in Scone or Iona wherefrom a block so constituted could possibly have come, nor yet from Tara."[20]

The second study was done by Professor Odlum, who was a geologist and professor of theology at Ontario University. He made microscopic examinations of the stone, comparing it to quarries in both Scotland and Ireland, and found it dissimilar to stones from those areas. He became intrigued with the idea of that it might really be the stone of Jacob. That hypothesis could be tested scientifically by searching to see if a similar type of rock is found near Bethel, where Jacob found his stone. After considerable searching he found some strata rather high near a cliff that had exactly the type of composition he was looking for. He chipped off a piece and later performed microscopic tests. He concluded that his sample "matched perfectly" with the coronation stone.[21]

Desirous for even better proof he sought to get a little piece the size of a pea from the coronation stone, on which he could perform chemical tests. When he petitioned the Archbishop of Canterbury for such a piece, the reply was that it would take an act of Parliament signed by the King, and even then he wouldn't provide it.

To the best of my knowledge that was the end of a really fine scientific experiment which could at least partially validate the claim that the stone might have come from Bethel. This is an excellent example of how science can indeed be used to validate historical traditions. They cannot provide proof, but can greatly add to the credibility of a story. What is needed now is a really thorough scientific study of the stone to verify its authenticity.

5. Conclusion

Preliminary geological studies have indicated that the Stone of Destiny, upon which British monarchs have been crowned for centuries might indeed be the stone of Jacob as tradition asserts, because it matches a formation near Bethel, the Biblical location of the stone the prophet Jacob found. Further scientific testing is now required, such as a thorough chemical composition comparison, and even that can only confirm the possibility that the stone is authentic. In any case, on this fiftieth anniversary of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, we can pause to pay respect to what very well might be the continuation of the unbroken line of succession of kings reigning over the children of Israel, from King David, over three thousand years ago.

Notes

  1. See www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page2333.asp for a complete summary of events.
  2. E. Raymond Capt has written several books which summarize much of the evidence. Most of the information in this article was taken from his book Jacob's Pillar, Muskogee OK, Artisan Publishers, 1977. The author wishes to thank Colette Thomas Smith and William L. Walker, Jr., who pointed out to him several of the books on the subject, many of which are available from those publishers.
  3. One son of Zedekiah named Mulek avoided being killed, and came to America and became king of the Mulekites. His seed continued as kings until the time of Zarahemla about 120 B.C., when the Mulekites merged with the Nephites whose kings descended from Joseph through Lehi (Helaman 6:10, 8:21; Mosiah 25:2; Omni 1:19; Alma 10:3).
  4. The lower branch must refer to Zerah, son of Judah, whose kingdoms in Great Britain would go on to surpass that of the Kingdom of Judah, which was ruled by the higher branch of Pharez.
  5. Argos and Athens, the early culture centers in Greece which helped establish its culture and laws, were founded by the Danai (named for Dan). Muller, in Fragmenta Historicorum II:385 summarizes: "Hecataeus [of Abdera, a fouth-century B.C. Greek historian], therefore, tells us that the Egyptians, formerly being troubled by calamities, in order that the divine wrath might be averted, expelled all the aliens gathered together in Egypt. Of these, some, under their leaders Danus and Cadmus, migrated to Greece." (Capt, p. 25). Another ancient historian, Diodorus, adds "Now the Egyptians say that also after these events a great number of colonies were spread from Egypt all over the inhabited world . . . They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city in Greece, Argos . . . Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Sais in Egypt." (G.H. Oldfather, Diodorus of Sicily, 1933, vol 1, I:1-II:34, pg. 91, quoted in Capt, p. 26). The Danai became associated with the Phoenicians, and gave them their alphabet (the Phoenician alphabet is same as ancient Hebrew), upon which the Greek alphabet was also based. The Bible mentions how Dan made ships during the period of the Judges (about 1300 B.C., Judges 5:17). Homer refers to all of Greece as Argos, and calls them Argives or Danai, but most Greeks are descended from Javan, son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2). The Argives apparently later became the Macedonians. See Gawler, J. C., Dan, Pioneer of Israel(London, 1880) reprinted by Artisan Publishers, 1984, pp 11-16. This was clearly part of how all the world would be blessed by the children of Abraham.
  6. The Milesians were said also to called Gadelians, but the latter were probably a group that came later from the same area, because they were said to have remained in "Gothland" for a century and a half before coming to Ireland (Gawler, p. 31). I cannot help but notice the similarity of the name "Gadelian" and the name "Goth" to "Gad," one of the twelve tribes of Israel. I've never read of anyone else making that connection, so it might be merely a coincidence. Keatinge, in his History of Ireland p. 72 states, "The most ancient Irish chronicles assert that the Gadelians in general were called Scots because they came out of Scythia." (Gawler, p. 41). The original source seems to be Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, "The Milesians, according to our old annalists, were originally a colony from Scythia, near to the Euxine and Caspian Seas, on the borders of Europe and Asia, and about the country now called Crimea. From these people, called the Scoti or Scots, Ireland got the name of Scotia." (Gawler, p. 31).
  7. Zerah is the usual spelling for this name (Gen. 46:12, 1 Chron. 2:4, etc.). The only time it is spelled Zarah is in the one verse describing his birth (Gen. 38:30).
  8. David's promise of continually reigning descendants appears to be an extension of the same promise given to Judah. This article discusses the continuity of the regal line after David, but what about from Judah to David? Saul was from the tribe of Benjamin (1 Sam. 9:1-2), and before that Israel was ruled by judges from various tribes. Where were the kings from Judah at that time? A manuscript from the Archives of Constantinople, which might well be the last chapter of the Book of Acts, states that the apostle Paul visited the British Isles, and that "certain of the Druids came unto Paul privately, and showed by their rites and ceremonies they were descended from the Jews which escaped from bondage in the land of Egypt, and the Apostle believed these things" (E. Raymond Capt, The Lost Chapter of Acts of the Apostles, Artisan Publishers, Muskogee, OK, 1982, p. 6). If some Israelites escaped from Egypt as the bondage began, then Judah's descendants could have a continual reign beginning with Judah himself.
  9. The Greek tradition is that Cecrops was the founder and first king of Athens, and that his brother Darda was the founder of Troy. Both were said to have come from Egypt. Some researchers have concluded that they were none other than Calcol and Dara, sons of Zerah (1 Chron. 2:6; Capt, Jacob's Pillar, p. 26). If so, it would mean that those cities were founded earlier than thought and that the founders left before, rather than after, the Egyptian bondage.
  10. The Scottish tradition is that his people were officially named "Scots" in honor of his wife, although they also say the name came from Scotia, their former home (Scythia): "the ancestor of the Scots was 'ane Greyk callit Gathelus (father of Eochaidh ...) son (descendant) of Cecrops of Athens, untherways of Argus, King of Argives' who came to Egypt when 'in this tyme rang (reigned) in Egypt Pharo ye scurge of ye pepill of Israel.' Gathelus gained a great victory for Pharo against 'the Moris and Pepil of Yned' and 'King Pharo gaif him his dochter, callit Scota, in marriage' It explicitly states that after they moved to Lusitana (Portugal) and built the city of Brigance, that he 'callit his subdittis (subjects) Scottis in honour and affeccioun of his wyiff.'" (The Chronicles of Scotland, by John Bellenden, 1531, vol. I, pgs. 21-27, quoted in Pillar of Jacob, p. 30).
  11. Capt, Jacob's Pillar, pp. 31-32.
  12. Another regal line in England descending from David comes from Joseph of Arimathaea, who went to England shortly after the Crucifixion of Christ, and from whom King Arthur descended.
  13. According to Capt (p. 26), after the fall of Troy, about 1200 B.C., Aeneas, the last of the royal blood of Zerah, took what was left of his nation and moved to Italy. He married the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, and founded the Roman Empire. His son (or grandson) Brutus with a large party of Trojans, removed to England. He arrived about 1103 B.C. and made a contract with his kindred in Britian. He built his new capital called Caer Troia ("New Troy"). The Romans later called it "Londinium" and today it is known as London.
  14. See the CNN coverage of the return of the Stone of Scone.
  15. The Companion Bible, quoted in Jacob's Pillar, p. 12.
  16. Bethel was located within a few miles of what is now Ramallah, which is Yasser Arafat's headquarters.
  17. Some possibilities are Ex. 17:6, Num. 20:8, Deut. 8:15, Psalms 114:8 in light of 1 Cor. 10:4.
  18. But didn't Gathelus say it his chair was marble? The word marble at that time could refer to any calcareous stone which could be polished (Jacob's Pillar, p. 31).
  19. This tradition comes through the Masons (Jacob's Pillar, p. 11).
  20. Jacob's Pillar, p. 59.
  21. Jacob's Pillar, p. 60.

 


USA NEWS Best Winter Vacations

1Some travelers are enchanted by winter's first snowfall, while others are itching to escape the season's cold weather. To help you find the locale that best suits your winter vacation wants and needs, U.S. Newscompiled a list of the best winter destinations based on expert analysis and reader votes. Use 1these ideas to start planning your getaway, and vote for your favorite spots to help determine next year's ranking.

Sun, Snow or in between many love to travel over the winter time. From Hawaiian destinations, to Winter sports events in the Canadian world-renowned ski slopes at Whistler Blackcomb.   Rome, St Lucia, Florida and more.   See some great destinations HERE


Does this coin found near Jerusalem prove that Samson lived... and that he did fight the lion?

Samson and DelilahSamson and Delilah (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A tiny seal has been uncovered that could be the first archaeological evidence of Samson, the Biblical slayer of Philistines.

Archaeologists discovered the ancient artifact while excavating the tell of Beit Shemesh in the Judaean Hills near Jerusalem, Israel.

It appears to depict the Old Testament story of Samson, whose might was undone by his lust for the temptress Delilah, and his fight with a lion.

The seal, which measures less than an inch in diameter, shows a large animal with a feline tail attacking a human figure.

The seal was discovered at a level of excavation that dates it to roughly the 11th century BC, when Israelite tribes had moved into the area after Joshua's conquest of Canaan.

It was a time when the Jews were led by ad hoc leaders known as judges, one of whom was Samson.

The location of the find was close to the River Sorek that marked the boundary between the Israelites and their Philistine foes, The Daily Telegraph reported.

The location also indicates that the figure on the seal could represent Samson, according to Israeli archaeologists Professor Shlomo Bunimovitz and Dr Zvi Lederman.

Beit Shemesh is regularly mentioned in the Old Testament, most notably in chapter 6 of the book of Samuel I - the ruler of Israel immediately after Samson - as being the first city encountered by the ark of the covenant on its way back from Philistia after having been captured by the Philistines in battle.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Is America becoming an atheist nation?

USA in ProphecySomewhere Bill Maher is smiling. A new Pew Survey (Oct. 17, 2019) has come out, reporting a decline of Christianity in America and the rise of the "nones." The nones are those who have no religious affiliation.

The report states, "65% of American adults describe themselves as Christians when asked about their religion, down 12 percentage points over the past decade. Meanwhile, the religiously unaffiliated share of the population, consisting of people who describe their religious identity as atheist, agnostic or 'nothing in particular' now stands at 26%, up from 17% in 2009. Both Protestantism and Catholicism are experiencing losses of population share."

Included in the bad news is the report that people are attending church less frequently: "Over the last decade, the share of Americans who say they attend religious services at least once or twice a month dropped by 7 percentage points, while the share who say they attend religious services less often (if at all) has risen by the same degree."

MORE

 

WHO AMERICA IS in the Bible


Thousands of witches to cast massive spell on Trump and his supporters

At one minute before the stroke of midnight on Oct. 25, thousands of self-identified witches plan to simultaneously conduct a ritual meant to "bind" President Trump "and all those who abet him."

The practice has taken place monthly since Trump's inauguration, notes Michael Snyder on his End of the American Dream blog, but with Halloween approaching and an impeachment inquiry underway, it's getting renewed media attention.   MORE>>>>


Christian persecution 'at near genocide levels'

image from ichef.bbci.co.uk

The persecution of Christians in parts of the world is at near "genocide" levels, according to a report ordered by Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt.

The review, led by the Bishop of Truro the Right Reverend Philip Mounstephen, estimated that one in three people suffer from religious persecution.     Christians were the most persecuted religious group, it found. 

UPDATE:

Islamist Mob Burns Christian Church to the Ground in Cameroon


The Plain Truth- May 2009--- Chinese influence over Congress

This is the story and link we put up in May 2009!   Over 10 years ago, and once again, The Plain Truth has been ahead of the MSM on the dangers the US is facing.  

Chinese influence over American leaders:

China's communist government has used its relationships with prominent Americans to further a propaganda effort aimed at influencing U.S. policies and softening economic sanctions, according to recent congressional testimony. Those whose names, words or friendships have been invoked by China to influence the debate over sanctions include former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and former President George H.W. Bush, said Anne-Marie Brady, an associate professor of political and social sciences at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Ms. Brady testified before the U.S.-China Economic & Security Review Commission April 30 that it is long-standing Chinese policy to exploit foreigners for global propaganda work. "Historically, foreigners have been extremely useful in producing a wide range of propaganda materials, ranging from books, films and poetry, to public and private lobbying," she said. ... MORE>>>>>>>Chinese influence

Here is a list of other Plain Truth Stories over the years warning about the Chinese menace. 

HERE

also:


CHINA RARE EARTH THREAT
'DONT' SAY WE DIDN'T WARN YOU'
USA RISKS 'DEVASTATING' BLOW

FROM THE PLAIN TRUTH January 12, 2010

EXCLUSIVE: Inside China's secret toxic unobtainium mine


Archaeologists find 2,000-year-old 'lost' street built by Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem as a 'pilgrim's route' through the holy city

 

the Bible as History

Archaeologists find 2,000-year-old 'lost' street built by Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem

The 722 feet (220 metre) -long section of road was unearthed by researchers from the Israel Antiquities Authority and Tel Aviv University after six years of digging in Jerusalem.


What the Weather Channel and MSM don't admit-Hurricanes have been worse in the past

Don't believe the hype about Climate change, global warming, and the deadliness hurricane garbage that you are assaulted with daily in the media.  Take a look....  Also remember before the 1960's we didn't even have satellites and ways to measure some storms, and we didn't have 10 million people in harm's way building on ocean beaches. Remember that thing about 'building your houses on sand?"  Jesus knew what would happen 2,000 years ago!

The 30 Deadliest US Hurricanes / Tropical Cyclones (1851 - 2006)

Rank Name Year Category Deaths
1. Great Galveston Hurricane (TX) 1900 4 8000
2. FL (Lake Okeechobee) 1928 4 2500
3. Katrina (LA/MS/FL/GA/AL) 2005 3 1200
4. Cheniere Caminanda (LA) 1893 4 1100-1400
5. Sea Islands (SC/GA) 1893 3 1000-2000
6. GA/SC 1881 2 700
7. Audrey (SW LA/N TX) 1957 4 416
8. Great Labor Day Hurricane (FL Keys) 1935 5 408
9. Last Island (LA) 1856 4 400
10. Miami Hurricane (FL/MS/AL/Pensacola) 1926 4 372
11. LA (Grand Isle) 1909 4 350
12. FL (Keys)/S. TX 1919 4 287#
13.. LA (New Orleans) 1915 4 275
13. TX (Galveston) 1915 4 275
15. Camille (MS/LA) 1969 5 256
15.. New England 1938 3* 256
17. Diane (NE U.S.) 1955 1 184
18. GA, SC, NC 1898 4 179
19. TX 1875 3 176
20. SE FL 1906 2 164
21. Indianola (TX) 1886 4 150
22. MS/AL/Pensacola 1906 3 134
23. FL, GA, SC 1896 3 130
24. Agnes (NE U.S.) 1972 1 122
25. Hazel (SC/NC) 1954 4* 95
26. Betsy (SE FL/SE LA) 1965 3 75
27. Great Atlantic Hurricane 1944 3* 64@
28. Carol (NE U.S.) 1954 3* 60
29. Floyd (NC) 1999 4 56
30. NC 1883 2 53
ADDENDUM (Not U.S. Mainland Atlantic Coast):
2. San Ciriaco (Puerto Rico) 1899 3 3369
6. San Narcico (Puerto Rico, V.I.) 1867 3 811
6. San Lorenzo (Puerto Rico) 1852 1 800
12. San Felipe (Puerto Rico) 1928 5 312
17. U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico 1932 2 225
25. Donna (St. Thomas, VI) 1960 4 107
25. San Gil (Puerto Rico) 1888 1 100
# - Over 500 of these lost on ships at sea; 600-900 estimated deaths.
* - Moving more than 30 miles an hour.
@ - Some 344 of these lost on ships at sea.
& - Only of Tropical Storm intensity.

Source: The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2006, updated April, 2007.

More Information: The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

National Hurricane Center Publication: The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492 - 1996


Let's Put a happy tree right here!

Bob Ross Art on Public Display

image from i.dailymail.co.uk
The artworks of Bob Ross are being exhibited in in a solo show outside his studio for the first time, almost a generation on from his his death.  24 paintings by the beloved artist and television host - who passed away in 1995 - are being displayed at the Franklin Park Arts Center in Purcellville, Virginia until October 15.  The exhibition is titled 'Happy Accidents', a reference to Ross's widely quoted catchphrase: ' We don't make mistakes here, we have happy accidents'.   

 

 

The Great Speckled Bird

What a beautiful thought I am thinking
Concerning a great speckled bird
Remember her name is recorded
On the pages of God's Holy Word

All the other birds are flocking 'round her
And she is despised by the squad
But the great speckled bird in the Bible
Is one with the great church of God

All the other churches are against her
They envy her glory and fame
They hate her because she is chosen
And has not denied Jesus' name

Desiring to lower her standard
They watch every move that she makes
They long to find fault with her teachings
But really they find no mistake

She is spreading her wings for a journey
She's going to leave by and by
When the trumpet shall sound in the morning
She'll rise and go up in the sky

In the presence of all her despisers
With a song never uttered before
She will rise and be gone in a moment
Till the great tribulation is o'er

I am proud that my name is on her book
For I want to be one never fearing
The face of my Savior to look

When He cometh descending from heaven
On the cloud that He writes in His Word
I'll be joyfully carried to meet Him
On the wings of that great speckled bird

By Bob Barney

The lyrics of the song was written over 100 years ago, but never are the words more true than today. "The Great Speckled Bird" is a hymn from the Southern United States whose lyrics were written by the Reverend Guy Smith, and Transcribed by singer Charlie Swain, made famous by Roy Acuff and later Johnny Cash.    It is based on Jeremiah 12:9, "Mine heritage is unto me as a speckled bird, the birds round about are against her; come ye, assemble all the beasts of the field, come to devour." It was recorded in 1936 by Roy Acuff. It was also later recorded by Johnny Cash and Kitty Wells (both in 1959), Pearly Brown (1961), Hank Locklin (1962), Marty Robbins (1966), Lucinda Williams (1978), Bert Southwood (1990), Marion Williams, and Jerry Lee Lewis.

The great speckled bird represents the true Church of God, and the Bible.  The other birds (vs 5-7)  represent other false churches and false religions.  The Plain Truth of Jesus Christ is despised by much of the world, including Christian Churches and other religions like Islam and Judaism.  The world, science and anthropologists "long to find fault with her teachings," and if we are honest with ourselves, everything around us tries to do just that!  Evolution, global warming, modern politically correct laws, and our leaders are always at odds with the Bible - which is the word of God!  Like the song says, "But really they find no mistake". And they don't. Evolution is a lie, so is global warming. So too is the Democrat party - they all stand for lawlessness!  Don't be fooled, lawlessness = DEATH!  1 John 3:4 and Romans 6:23.

"They hate her because she is chosen---And has not denied Jesus' name." Revelation 3:8:  I know your works: behold, I have set before you an open door, and no man can shut it: for you have a little strength, and have kept my word, and have not denied my nameThe Plain Truth is that many today deny Jesus is God. In fact in doing so, they are being antichrists!  

The world hates us because they hated Jesus first.  If the world hates you, keep in mind that it hated me first. 19 If you belonged to the world, it would love you as its own. As it is, you do not belong to the world, but I have chosen you out of the world. That is why the world hates you. 20 Remember what I told you: ‘A servant is not greater than his master.’[a] If they persecuted me, they will persecute you also. If they obeyed my teaching, they will obey yours also.21 They will treat you this way because of my name, for they do not know the one who sent me. 22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not be guilty of sin; but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 Whoever hates me hates my Father as well. 24 If I had not done among them the works no one else did, they would not be guilty of sin. As it is, they have seen, and yet they have hated both me and my Father. 25 But this is to fulfill what is written in their Law: ‘They hated me without reason.’" (John 15:18-25)

Tribulation:  Unlike in the song, the Church is NOT raptured before Christ's return, BUT DURING HIS RETURN--- at that same moment in time, but for the most part, the song is a great example of the true message of the Bible, that is timeless and as true today concerning the nature of mankind as it was when it was first written.

"She is spreading her wings for a journey - She's going to leave by and by -When the trumpet shall sound in the morning - She'll rise and go up in the sky."  Yes, the Bible promises that the Church will go to meet Jesus, When He returns (not before) and we will reign with Christ on this earth for 1,000 years!  We do not go to heaven when we die, we sleep in a grave.  But when Jesus comes again, "When He cometh descending from heaven, On the cloud that He writes in His Word, 
I'll be joyfully carried to meet Him, On the wings of that great speckled bird."  This signifies when we are brought back to spiritual life and meet with Christ is the clouds at His coming (Read 1 Corinthians 15- the "resurrection" chapter).

Don't be fooled by the teachings of this world today.  Trust in God, and God's Bible.  Don't put your trust in man, be a part of the great speckled bird! 

 


Did Jesus Christ Really Exist?

Was Jesus of Nazareth a real person? Did He really exist? Are the stories written about Him in the Bible true? These are important questions, and it’s crucial that you know the answers!

Some argue that Jesus couldn’t have existed because there are no first-century historical records that mention Him. Of course, there are contemporary biographies written about Him—four of them in fact, by different authors. They’re called the Gospels, and they’re found in the Bible.

But that’s not good enough for those determined not to believe in Jesus Christ. They insist on more. They demand written records from contemporary first-century historians who were not followers of Jesus.

Historians are well aware of a few surviving non-Christian Roman works from early in the second century that mention Jesus Christ and Christianity.

But in so doing they’re requiring a standard few historical figures from the ancient world could possibly meet. After all, very few surviving histories survive from the first century, and basically the only sizeable and largely complete Roman written works from this time are a manual on agriculture, a comedy from a friend of one of the emperors and a few other miscellaneous works—none of which we would expect to include any mention of Christianity or Jesus Christ.

Roman histories that mention Jesus and Christianity... Read the incredible Plain Truth about The Real Jesus


Book of Nehemiah Found Among the Scrolls

Scroll scholars find first fragment of Nehemiah

nehemiah

A gaunt Nehemiah guards the portal on the west facade of the Church of St. Lazare, in Avallon, central France. In a recent study, scroll scholars Torleif Elgvin and Esther Eshel identified the first known copy of the Book of Nehemiah among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Photo: Foto Marburg/Art Resource, NY.

Anyone familiar with the Dead Sea Scrolls can tell you that portions of nearly every book in the Hebrew Bible are represented in these ancient texts discovered in caves near the Dead Sea.

The only exceptions were the Book of Esther and the Book of Nehemiah;* scholars assumed the latter had been written on the same scroll as the Book of Ezra (as was common) but simply hadn’t survived—until now. In a recent blog post,** Norwegian scroll scholar Torleif Elgvin of Evangelical Lutheran University College in Oslo, Norway, announced that he and colleague Esther Eshel of Bar-Ilan University will be publishing a collection of more than two dozen previously unknown scroll fragments, including the first known fragment of Nehemiah.

The scrolls in the new book come from Qumran Cave 4, Bar-Kokhba caves and Wadi ed-Daliyeh. The publication, Gleanings from the Caves (forthcoming from T&T Clark) will feature enhanced photographs of the scrolls by Bruce Zuckerman and his team,*** as well as “artifacts from the Judean Desert such as a scroll jar, a palm fiber pen, a bronze altar and inkwell.”

Read More


What is the significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls? Why are they so important to our understanding of the Bible, Christianity and Judaism? In our free eBook The Dead Sea Scrolls: Discovery and Meaning, find out what the scrolls tell us about the Bible, Christianity and Judaism


Satanic Temple head: 'More than 50% of our membership is LGBTQ'

Honestly, does this surprise anyone?

1“It would be a conservative estimate to say that more than 50 percent of our membership is LGBTQ,” the head of the Satanic Temple said in a recent interview.

Lucien Greaves, who runs the U.S. Satanic Temple, told U.K.-based Attitude magazine, “From the start, when one of our early actions was the Pink Mass, a lot of LGBTQ people were looking for another community that didn’t see them as defined by their sexual orientation.”

It appears Greaves was referring to a ritual he performed at the grave of the mother of the leader of the Westboro Baptist Church, a fringe, vehemently anti-Catholic group condemned by pro-family activists for, among other things, reducing people to the sum of their sexual attractions (just as the LGBT lobby does). The “black mass,” meanwhile, is a blasphemous mockery of the Catholic Mass that includes the desecration of a consecreated host, which the Catholic Church teaches is the literal body, blood, soul, and divinity of Jesus Christ.  MORE


The grapes of Sodom & the law of cumulative sin

By Scott Lively

USA in prophecyI was very moved by a recent opinion piece by Erick Erickson on the atoning sacrifice of Union soldiers in the Civil War for the sin of slavery.

His purpose was to rebuke the New York Times for its pursuit of reparations for the descendants of slaves, noting that the debt had been fully paid in blood. He reminded us that this was a consensus of our nation at the time, invoking President Lincoln's second inaugural address:

"The Almighty has His own purposes. 'Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh.' If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses … if God wills … every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword."

Read More

Also Read : The Number “13” and the United States! We are lost Israel!


WHY A SCIENTIST BELIEVES IN GOD

“While the admission of a design for the universe ultimately raises the question of a Designer (a subject outside of science), the scientific method does not allow us to exclude data which lead to the conclusion that the universe, life and man are based on design. To be forced to believe only one conclusion – that everything in the universe happened by chance – would violate the very objectivity of science itself.

Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun

The “Father of Modern Space Flight” was Wernher von Braun.

He acknowledged his debt to the “Father of Modern Rocketry,” American scientist Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945): “Goddard’s rockets … may have been rather crude by present-day standards, but they blazed the trail and incorporated many features used in our most modern rockets and space vehicles.” Read  More




Wrongful Convictions

The legal record is full of false confessions, torture, dirty cops, and broken justice. Courts and judges on the take, and as God warns us in His word, there is "no justice in the land."

Philly man cleared of murder after 27 years in prison

Willie Veasy, 54, stepped out of a Philadelphia courthouse Wednesday a free man after serving 27 years behind bars for a murder he did not commit. A judge ruled he was innocent in the 1992 shooting death of John Lewis and threw out his sentence of life without parole. Prosecutors believe that Veasy was coerced into signing a confession by two detectives who had a 'pattern and practice' of forcing false confessions. Those detectives have retired and are being investigated. Veasy's release made it the tenth exoneration since District Attorney Larry Krasner (inset) took office last year.

Read More:


The Snakefish invades America

Fish that can live on LAND and eats mammals is found in a Georgia pond for the first time

An invasive fish named the Northern snakehead has been found for the first time in a pond in Gwinnett County, Georgia. The Northern snakehead (pictured) is native to the Yangtze River basin in China, but has been found in 14 U.S. states. The fish species can grow 3-feet long and survive for up to four days out of water. Officials are concerned the predatory species will  overtake native aquatic wildlife species, since it is known to eat other fish, frogs, small reptiles, crustaceans, birds and some mammals. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources is telling people who encounter the fish to 'kill it immediately'.


Vatican Refutes Pope’s Denial of Christ’s Divinity

Foreword by Bob Barney:  The Plain Truth has informed our readers for years that in the end time, a revised Holy Roman Empire will again be born in Europe with the Catholic Church at the helm, DENYING the divinity of Christ, not false Christianity, as they are today- but NO CHRISTIANITY!.... Here is another story as an example....

Pope Francis kisses a figurine of baby Jesus as he celebrates a mass on Christmas eve marking the birth of Jesus Christ on December 24, 2016 at St Peter's basilica in the Vatican. / AFP / ANDREAS SOLARO (Photo credit should read ANDREAS SOLARO/AFP/Getty Images)
ANDREAS SOLARO/AFP/Getty

ROME — The Vatican issued a statement Wednesday refuting claims Pope Francis had denied the divinity of Jesus Christ, saying the words attributed to the pontiff were a “free interpretation” of what he actually said.

On Wednesday, journalist Eugenio Scalfari published an essay in the Italian daily La Repubblica declaring, among other things, that the pope told him that he believes that Jesus of Nazareth was an exceptional man, but not God incarnate.

“As has already been stated on other occasions, the words that Dr. Eugenio Scalfari attributes in quotation marks to the Holy Father during talks with him cannot be considered a faithful account of what was actually said, but represent rather a personal and free interpretation of what he heard, as is quite evident from what was written today about the divinity of Jesus Christ,” reads the statement by papal spokesman Matteo Bruni.  MORE

“As has already been stated on other occasions, the words that Dr. Eugenio Scalfari attributes in quotation marks to the Holy Father during talks with him cannot be considered a faithful account of what was actually said, but represent rather a personal and free interpretation of what he heard, as is quite evident from what was written today about the divinity of Jesus Christ,” reads the statement by papal spokesman Matteo Bruni.


Fear of World War 3

MARK ALMOND: Could Donald Trump's retreat from Syria spark a global conflict? 

MARK ALMOND: President Erdogan lost no time in seizing the opportunity that President Donald Trump handed him this week. In a bid to 'bring peace to the area,' the Turkish president initiated a long-awaited onslaught on Syria's Kurds using FI6 supersonic aircraft, tanks and heavy artillery, as the embattled Kurds shot back with mortars against Nato's second largest army.


How much physical coal is required to produce enough electricity to power the average electric vehicle

Michael Barnard
Michael Barnard, Low-carbon Innovation Strategist
Originally Answered: How much physical coal is required to produce enough electricity to power the average electric vehicle (tesla, volt, etc) for 300 miles?

First off, the standard statement: no grid is 100% coal generation and pretty much all new demand these days reduces the percentage of coal generation on a grid.

That said, let's break it down:

  • A 2012 Tesla Model S with the 85 KWH battery pack has an EPA rated range of 265 miles. Tesla Model S
  • Very little math tells us that 300 miles would require about 96 KWH.
  • "Since coal has a heat value of 20,000 kJ/kg, for producing one KWH we require (10765 / 20000) 0.538 kg of coal. " How to Calculate the Coal Quantity Used in a Power Plant
  • 96 KWH would require, once again through simple math, just under 52 KG of coal or about 114 pounds of coal.
  • Fortuitously, coal often comes in 50 kg sacks, allowing us to find a picture of someone carrying one for scale.

Mokete Phoka, 20-year-old, delivers a 50kg bag of coal in Soweto 17...

  • For comparison, gasoline weighs 2.83 kg or 6.25 lbs per US gallon, so 20 gallons would weigh about 57 kg or 125 pounds, slightly more than the coal. Of course, that's assuming a car that gets 15 miles per gallon which kind of sucks. Volume to Weight conversion Here's a guy filling up a bunch of five gallon cans with gas in preparation for a hurricane for comparison.

 

Read the entire story here


Nature magazine yanks global-warming study for 'systematic errors'

(Image courtesy Pixabay)

Nature magazine has retracted a study on so-called "global warming" that claimed humans were creating warming in the oceans.

"Climatology is littered with examples of bad statistics, going back to the infamous Hockey Stick graph and beyond," explained Benny Peiser of the Global Warming Policy Forum. "Peer review is failing and it is falling to amateurs to find the errors. Scientists in the field should be embarrassed."

Authors of the study were R.F. Keeling, Y. Eddebbar and M.K. Brooks of Scripps Institution of Oceanography; R. Wang of China; L. Bopp of Paris; M.C. Long of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado; J.P. Dunne of NOAA; and W. Koeve and A. Oschlies of Germany.     MORE