During the civil war that broke out after the revolution, Russia was gripped by a famine that began in spring 1921 and lasted all of 1922. The famine was caused by the policies of Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who instructed food to be seized from the poor. They believed peasants were actively trying to undermine the war effort and by taking their food away it reduced their strength. Lenin declared 'let the peasants starve', the result of which was to force them to resort to trading human flesh, including heads, on the black market (left). The effects of starvation can been seen in the emaciated bodies of these children in Samara (right). Aid workers from Europe and the United States eventually arrived and one said 'the famine is so acute' one woman 'was found eating the corpse of her daughter'.