The first combat submarine to sink an enemy ship also instantly killed its own eight-man crew with the powerful explosive torpedo it carried, new research has found.
The HL Hunley fought for the confederacy in the US civil war and was sunk near North Charleston, South Carolina, in 1864.
Speculation about the crew's deaths has included suffocation and drowning, but a new study claims that a shockwave created by their own weapon was to blame.
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WHAT KILLED THE CREW?
The researchers suggest that the crew was killed by a blast of energy as a torpedo was released.
The shockwave of the blast would travel about 4,920 feet (1,500 metres) per second in water, and 1,115 feet (340 m) per second in air.
When it crossed the lungs of the crewmen, the shockwave was slowed to about 100 feet (30 m) per second.
While a normal blast shockwave travelling in air should last less than 10 milliseconds, Ms Lance calculates that the Hunley crew's lungs were subjected to 60 milliseconds or more of trauma.
Shear forces would have torn apart the delicate structures where the blood supply meets the air supply, filling the lungs with blood and killing the crew instantly.
It us likely they also suffered traumatic brain injuries from being so close to such a large blast.
Researchers from Duke University in North Carolina set blasts near a scale model of the vessel to calculate their impact.
They also shot authentic weapons at historically accurate iron plates.
They used this data to work out the mathematics behind human respiration and the transmission of blast energy.
Ms Rachel Lance, one of the researchers on the study, says the crew died instantly from the force of the explosion travelling through the soft tissues of their bodies, especially their lungs and brains.
Ms Lance calculates the likelihood of immediately fatal lung trauma to be at least 85 per cent for each member of the Hunley crew.
She believes the crippled sub then drifted out on a falling tide and slowly took on water before sinking.
'This is the characteristic trauma of blast victims, they call it "blast lung'', said Ms Lance.
'You have an instant fatality that leaves no marks on the skeletal remains.
'Unfortunately, the soft tissues that would show us what happened have decomposed in the past hundred years.'
Blast-lung is a phenomenon of something Ms Lance calls 'the hot chocolate effect.'
The shockwave of the blast would travel about 4,920 feet (1,500 metres) per second in water, and 1,115 feet (340 m) per second in air.
James Bond is famous for driving Aston Martins. But throughout his existence on pages and the big screen, 007 has sometimes branched to a car showroom further afield.
There was the Lotus Esprit from The Spy Who Loved Me in 1977, the 1995 BMW Z3 from Golden Eye and who could forget the appearance of the Ford Mondeo in Casino Royale in 2006?
But arguably the most famed non-Aston vehicle driven by the fictional spy is set to go under the hammer in a week's time - the genuine AMC Hornet X stunt car that performed the corkscrew jump in the 1974 film The Man With the Golden Gun.
Pat Buchanan in Manchester, NH (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
By Bob Barney
(I first wrote this in 2009 after seeing just how racist Obama and company were going to be.......)
There is something afoot in the nation, and it is ugly. We have a house divided, and I don't see it getting any better very soon. In 1860, we had a divided America which led to the Civil War with hundreds of thousands of causalities and a lost generation of Americans because two America's were not able to survive side by side. Some say that the eventual outcome of the war, which saved the union, was worth the hefty price. Others, myself included, wonder if the cost was worth it, if all we have to show for it is another coming civil war. A bloodier war perhaps this time than before.
I see what Pat Buchanan called “the Balkanization of America” happening and I don't see a quick fix. People who worked hard their entire life are not just willing to give up all they worked for, take away their children's future for a bunch of lazy, greedy and ungodly thieves, using the courts and politicians to steal whatever they want from their neighbor. In "Suicide of a Superpower," a book by Buchanan, he says the politics of race, culture and tribalism will be the largest problem civilization will face.
"Christianity is dying in the West," he declared on the radio. Buchanan says there is a "long plan" by Marxists to rid the nation of Christianity.
Buchanan doesn't think much holds us together as a nation anymore. "[The] disagreements are so profound," he told talk show host Sean Hannity.
"Cultural Marxism has succeeded in transvaluing all the values in society," Buchanan said among other views he has of the Left hurting what he believes is traditional American culture. "The America that is coming is going to be unrecognizable to our generation. "
Most likely, we will see a migration of people to certain areas of the nation where they will congregate with those that hold similar views. They will elect representatives who will, like those from the South in the 1850's, refuse to compromise on anything with those other states trying to rob their wealth. I can envision states banning together forming “Trade Union States” which will through low taxation and their use of the 10th Amendment, will refuse to allow Washington to enforce any federal legislation that will forceable tax people for behavior. Some websites and Facebook pages are devoted to this theme already. In Montana, the “Montana Health Care Freedom Act” otherwise known as Referendum 122, prohibits the state and federal governments from requiring the purchase of health insurance or imposing any penalty, tax, fee or fine on those who do not purchase health insurance. The people of Colorado and Washington State took that same kind of stand. By passing Amendment 64 and Initiative 502, they sent a message to Washington DC, and it’s loud and clear. “We don’t need your stinkin’ prohibition!” (more…) Of course, by then the Supreme Court will mandate the 10th Amendment void and the war will begin.....
The Bible is clear on who we are as a nation. We are a part of the so-called “lost 10 tribes of Israel,” and our doom is predicted in God's prophecies. We are destined to be enslaved again to aliens living among us, who will eat our produce and take our land (Lev 26). By the time of the Tribulation, the USA is not even mentioned as a world power involved in anything, but maybe slavery. Europe and the Muslim World are destined to be the new leaders of a global new world order.
The Bible says that 1/3 of mankind is going to be wiped out in one instant in the final World War. That will be 2 BILLION people at today's population level. Think about that.
The Iran-Iraq border runs through the Tigris watershed (above), leaving the river in Iraqi hands. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Obama's job was to build up the coming king of the south (The Muslims) and to help defeat the Jews in Palestine. What isn't understood is that unlike Hitler, the antichrist coming out of Europe will not turn on the Jews, but instead on the Muslims. We are going to see the mass slaughter of Muslims by the Europeans, and the Jews will be offered protection by them against their mortal enemies. During this time, a new Temple will be built on or near the present day Dome of the Rock. Sacrifices will begin again, and war will result starting in the Middle East. We even know where that war starts. The Euphrates River, and where it ends; Armageddon. (Revelation 16: 12) “The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates.” (Jeremiah 46:10) “But that day belongs to the LORD, the Lord Almighty-- a day of vengeance, for vengeance on his foes. The sword will devour till it is satisfied, till it has quenched its thirst with blood. For the Lord, the LORD Almighty, will offer sacrifice in the land of the north by the River Euphrates.” Here is where it ends, after 2 billion or more people DIE! (Revelation 16:1) “Then I heard a loud voice from the temple saying to the seven angels, "Go, pour out the seven bowls of God's wrath on the earth."
2 The first angel went and poured out his bowl on the land, and ugly and painful sores broke out on the people who had the mark of the beast and worshiped his image.
3 The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it turned into blood like that of a dead man, and every living thing in the sea died.
4 The third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs of water, and they became blood.
5 Then I heard the angel in charge of the waters say: "You are just in these judgments, you who are and who were, the Holy One, because you have so judged;
6 for they have shed the blood of your saints and prophets, and you have given them blood to drink as they deserve."
7 And I heard the altar respond: "Yes, Lord God Almighty, true and just are your judgments."
8 The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was given power to scorch people with fire.
9 They were seared by the intense heat and they cursed the name of God, who had control over these plagues, but they refused to repent and glorify him.
10 The fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom was plunged into darkness. Men gnawed their tongues in agony
11 and cursed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, but they refused to repent of what they had done.
12 The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up to prepare the way for the kings from the East.
13 Then I saw three evil spirits that looked like frogs; they came out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet.
14 They are spirits of demons performing miraculous signs, and they go out to the kings of the whole world, to gather them for the battle on the great day of God Almighty.
15 "Behold, I come like a thief ! Blessed is he who stays awake and keeps his clothes with him, so that he may not go naked and be shamefully exposed."
16 Then they gathered the kings together to the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon.
17 The seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and out of the temple came a loud voice from the throne, saying, 'It is done!'”
It is written in black and white, you can believe the Bible, or you can go your own way and follow whatever you think is right in your own eyes. Your decision means nothing to God.
A new tip in the Natalee Holloway investigation had led to the discovery of human remains in Aruba, 12 years after the teenager disappeared while vacationing on the tropical island to celebrate her high school graduation. A former roommate of Joran Van Der Sloot's best friend told Natalee's father Dave Holloway that the young woman was buried in a park near her hotel on the island. That man, Gabriel, said Van Der Sloot disposed of the body with help from his father Paulus after Natalee choked to death on her own vomit soon after she was given a drink that had been spiked with GHB. Van Der Sloot revealed this to his best friend John according to Gabriel, who then repeated that information to him while the two were living together over a decade ago.
Editor's note: The short-short-sightetness of this liberal Nazi-communist is amazing. By removing the statues, and the history, you also end up removing the story, so like in Germany today, most German's never heard of Hitler or WWII! This gives birth to the never-holocaust bunch that are sickening to hear today.. Many Muslims fall into this narrative..
When the Dodge Charger of 20-year-old Nazi sympathizer James Alex Fields Jr., plunged into that crowd of protesters Saturday, killing 32-year-old Heather Heyer, Fields put Charlottesville on the map of modernity alongside Ferguson.
Before Fields ran down the protesters, and then backed up, running down more, what was happening seemed but a bloody brawl between extremists on both sides of the issue of whether Robert E. Lee’s statue should be removed from Emancipation Park, formerly Lee Park.
With Heyer’s death, the brawl was elevated to a moral issue. And President Donald Trump’s initial failure to denounce the neo-Nazi and Klan presence was declared a moral failure.
The FBI is looking at an 'odd bit of buried foam' as possible evidence in the cold case investigation into 1971 Seattle plane hijacker D.B. Cooper, according to private investigators. The potential evidence was handed over to authorities last week by the team of sleuths who believe the foam made up a part of Cooper's parachute backpack. Cooper, one of the 20th century's most compelling masterminds, hijacked a Boeing 727 at Seattle-Tacoma airport in 1971 and held its crew and passengers hostage with a bomb. Once his demand of $200,000 cash - the equivalent of $1,213,226 today - was reached and transferred onto the plane, Cooper had the crew take off before he parachuted out over the dense Pacific Northwest woods and disappeared. The discovery of the foam comes just weeks after the FBI uncovered what is believed to be part of Cooper's parachute strap, which private investigators - led by TV and film executive Thomas Colbert - claim could lead authorities to his stolen fortune.
Forward by Bob Barney: What the leftist are doing is erasing history. This is what communist and Nazi's do. They deny their past, so those growing up never learn from history. This is how Satan fools mankind and is leading the world to Armageddon! Most young German's do not even know who Hitler was! How's that for erasing the past? Watch this 14 sec video....
I know a secret about the federal government’s relationship with Amazon: The U.S. Postal Service delivers the company’s boxes well below its own costs. Like an accelerant added to a fire, this subsidy is speeding up the collapse of traditional retailers in the U.S. and providing an unfair advantage for Amazon.
This arrangement is an underappreciated accident of history. The post office has long had a legal monopoly to deliver first-class mail, or nonurgent letters. The exclusivity comes with a universal-service obligation—to provide for all Americans at uniform price and quality. This communication service helps knit this vast country together, and it’s the why the Postal Service exists.
In 2001 the quantity of first-class mail in the U.S. began to decline thanks to the internet. Today it is down 40% from its peak levels, according to Postal Service data. But though there are fewer letters to put into each mailbox, the Postal Service still visits 150 million residences and businesses daily. With less traditional mail to deliver, the service has filled its spare capacity by delivering more boxes.
Other companies, such as UPS and FedEx, compete with the Postal Service to deliver packages. Lawmakers, to their credit, wanted a level playing field between the post office and its private competitors. The 2006 Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act made it illegal for the Postal Service to price parcel delivery below its cost.
I was wrong in description, last week they had a locomotive break down pulling coal cars. They left the engine on this side in Wakefield, lifted the engine up and replaced the entire wheel section. Today, the lifted it up and fixed something that I could not see. Still great video of the action (I think there are 4 here) The children are my grandchildren.
PLACE your mouse over picture and click the > play button. When finished click the little > on the right (or left to go back) side to go to the next photo and videos
For years, network news media have questioned various religious leaders who had confidently predicted the "rapture" on a given date. Recently, one such would-be prophet was required to change his earlier book title about the "Rapture of 1988" to the "Rapture of 1989," going into all manner of apologetic detail on why he had misfigured his chronology by one year. I haven't heard from him in 1990, '91, ’92 and so on.
Millions believe in the rapture. Yet, the word is nowhere in the Bible. Is Christ going to come in "two phases": first, for His saints (in the "secret rapture"), then with His saints, years later? Here is what your Bible plainly says about what many call "that blessed hope," the doctrine of the rapture of the saints.
Yes, as many in the media now seem to be surprised about just what our CIA and other Federal agencies have been up to, I have known for years just how evil this government can be. We like to think of ourselves as the "city on the hill" people (and for the most part our citizens are just that) but for a long time now, our Federal Gorvernment has been OUR ENEMY! Not Russia, not China, NOT VIETNAM - but our hidden shadow government! It wasn't the Chinese that tried to force my company out of business in 2006. It was state and local government agencies acting more like the gestapo than what they claimed to be. Fire Marshall's have unlimited power to shut you down - even if they are on the take and are corrupt. Our paint plant was recently visited by the DEQ, Fire marshall, Osha (which has NO jurisdiction) and the city planning official ON THE SAME DAY and swore to God, they didn't know about each other coming! Liars, cheats thieves, and enemies of the American people! These bureaucrats want to shut down every small business in America because they hate us! They hate what we stand for- Americanism! Americanism is the belief that the small guy can make it with hard work and freedom from tyranny. OUR GOVERNMENT = TYRANNY, much more now, than when the British ruled us and we fought a war over it. Our Bill of Rights have been trampled and covered with the shit of Uncle Sam!
I wrote the following in 2013..... Timely? I say ahead of it's time....
When Edward Snowden came forward to identify himself as the leaker of the National Security Agency spying programs, politicians and the media alike, from left to right have been working overtime to discredit the man who some actually view as a hero for revealing crucial information the government had kept secret. Apparently, if you think hiding information about spying on Americans is new, and that it took some 29 year-old nobody to reveal these secrets, then you are a part of the great silent majority of Americans who have kept themselves in the dark. The real problem is not that our government is spying on us, it is that this has been known to anyone with a micron of a brain since the 1970's! I am amazed at the fact that I could be Edward Snowden- and have never worked for the NSA, CIA or the United States Government! In fact, I know of many more secrets than he has revealed, and have known many of them since the 1970's!
For example: I knew all of this (with links to the stories):
In the 1970's I knew that:
1 Kennedy had the President of South Vietnam assassinated because he was becoming a national patriot. President Johnson believed what Richard Nixon always knew: that the Kennedy White House did not merely tolerate or encourage the murder of Ngo Dinh Diem, but organized and executed it because he was turning against USA policies that would eventually end up in the slaughter of some 60,000 young American drafted, and tens of thousands more maimed for life! It's part of the record. I know it from reading, not from working for Uncle Sam. Three weeks later, Kennedy fulfilled Jesus' prophecy: “Those who live by the sword, will die by the sword” when he himself was gunned down in Dallas. Oh, by the way, anyone with a brain that can connect three dots knows what and who was behind that....
But even the most robust ships in the world have been known to lose their battle against the mighty ocean when conditions get bad enough.
Fishing boats regularly face the wrath of the sea, as photos here display. One shows a Scottish vessel in the North Sea caught in mountainous 30ft waves, and another reveals a fishing boat in the Irish Sea that had to summon the Royal Navy after getting into trouble amid a storm.
Cruise ships occasionally find themselves in tumultuous situations too.
In 2010, an Antarctic cruise liner with 88 passengers and 77 crew members aboard sustained serious damage after being battered by brutal waves and 55 mph winds when it was north east of the South Shetland Islands on its way to Argentina.
These stomach-churning shots, rounded up from around the world and stretching from the 1920s onwards, capture the sheer power of the waters that cover more than 70 per cent of our planet.
Editor's note: I would say possibly even 100 million dead in a matter of days if Japan is struck.
John Hallam, a UN nuclear disarmament campaigner, warned the greatest threat facing the world now is an impending nuke conflict.
He said that there are concerns that US President Donald Trump could attack North Korea's underground nuclear tests facilities, which would have devastating consequences.
Mr Hallam said any direct bombing action of North Korea must be prevented, saying that although Kim Jong-un would lose a war, it would still cost lives.
WARNING: The body count will be in the tens of millions in the event of a nuclear war:
“What would happen next would be the incineration of the DPRK by the US or maybe China, with a body count in the millions or tens of millions, and with the fallout drifting over South Korea, China, and Japan,” he said.
His comments come as the world braces itself for World War 3.
Republican presidential nominee Senator John McCain with President George W. Bush at the White House, Wednesday, March 5, 2008. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
As if any true conservative needed more evidence, the Republican Party’s refusal to repeal Obamacare proves the party is comprised of liars, leftists and betrayers of the voters who elected them. And even more condemnable, they no longer care that we know it. But I get ahead of myself.
Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., has been corrupt since he took his very first steps in Congress, beginning with his involvement in the “Keating Five” savings and loan scandal. To avoid criminal prosecution for his criminal misdeeds, McCain, as they say, “dropped the dime” on everyone else involved, thus avoiding the gallows himself.