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January 2016

Challenger- It's been 30 Years!

I saw it happen from outside my paint store in Stuart

Challenger space shuttle disaster victims' families gather for 30th anniversary memorial

On January 28, 1986, Americans across the country took a break from their work, or from class, and found their way to a television to watch the space shuttle Challenger take off from Cape Canaveral. Seventy-three seconds later, the nation gave a united gasp as the shuttle exploded like firework across the bright blue sky (main) - killing all seven astronauts on board. Today, on the 30th anniversary of the disaster, family members of the doomed crew gathered at the Kennedy Space Center to pay tribute to the brave explorers lost in the explosion, including Scott McAuliffe (circled top right on Thursday and bottom right with his family), the son of teacher Christa McAuliffe, who won her place on the spaceship. Scott was just eight when his mother died. Christa's sister Betsy and their parents were photographed reacting in horror as the shuttle exploded (inset top) three decades ago. READ MORE:   The day America's space dream almost died: Son of hero teacher who died alongside six other astronauts leads families in marking the 30th anniversary of the Challenger explosion


Native Americans were wiped out by PLAGUES brought to their homes by European missionaries

When European colonists set foot in the Americas, they ultimately brought about the crippling depopulation of Native communities.

New research from Harvard University reveals, however, that the large-scale decline began more than a century later than is commonly believed. 

Tracing the devastation of Native Americans in the Southwest U.S. to the missionary efforts of the 1620s, the study suggests that waves of epidemic diseases, violence, and famine which followed wiped out near-entire communities in just decades.

As European settlers arrived, they brought infectious diseases, including smallpox, measles, influenza, bubonic plague, diphtheria, typhus, cholera, scarlet fever, chicken pox, yellow fever, and whooping cough. 

Tracing the devastation of Native Americans in the Southwest U.S. to the missionary efforts of the 1620s, a new study suggests that waves of epidemic diseases, violence, and famine which followed wiped out near-entire communities in just decades

WHAT THE STUDY FOUND  

The findings reveals that, among the 18 Pueblo villages investigated, populations sank from roughly 6,500 people, to less than 900 in just 60 years.

Researchers link this to the establishment of mission churches in the 1620s.

As European settlers arrived, they brought infectious diseases, including smallpox, measles, influenza, bubonic plague, diphtheria, typhus, cholera, scarlet fever, chicken pox, yellow fever, and whooping cough.

The Native populations also suffered from violence and famine as a result of the settlement.

And, as the populations suffered, the local environment was altered as well. 

The depopulation initially resulted in increased forest fires, but this region also ultimately shows carbon sequestration from forest regrowth.


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3416402/Native-Americans-wiped-PLAGUES-brought-homes-European-missionaries.html#ixzz3yLdw3IiR


FEDS KILL PATRIOT PROTESTER- Bundy Arrested

A Revolutionary War in America is Brewing....

Oregon militia spokesman LaVoy Finicum has been shot dead after a traffic stop escalated into a shoot-out that saw Ryan Bundy wounded and eight leaders of the occupation movement arrested.  The group's leader Ammon Bundy was among the militiamen arrested during the encounter on Tuesday afternoon as they drove to attend a community meeting in the neighboring town.   It is the climax of a tense stand-off between federal agents and the activists more than three weeks after they took over a government building in Burns, Oregon, to protest two ranchers being jailed.   According to local media, shots were fired within minutes of the traffic stop, killing Finicum and wounding 43-year-old Ryan Bundy.

It is not clear who opened fire first.  Ammon Bundy, Ryan Bundy, and three other leaders of the occupation - Ryan Payne, 32; Brian Cavalier, 44, and Shawna Cox, 59 - were charged with conspiracy to impede federal officers,Oregon Live reports. 

SCROLL DOWN FOR VIDEO 

ARRESTED, CHARGED: Ammon Bundy and six other militiamen were arrested at the scene and charged with conspiracy to impede federal officers'. It is three weeks after they took over a government building in Oregon



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3418491/Ammon-Bundy-arrested-three-fellow-militiamen-shots-fired-Oregon-stand-off.html#ixzz3yS5byF2e


Herbert W. Armstrong’s Signature Prophecy

 

Hwa1“Prophecy shows 10 kings … will arise in Europe and give their power to Germany.” Herbert W. Armstrong made that statement in a letter in 1962—54 years ago.

Even at the end of World War II, when Germany was reduced to rubble, Mr. Armstrong was forecasting that Germany would rise again to lead a union of nations in the territory of the old Roman Empire.

How did he know this United States of Europe would spring up in our time? He knew because it is revealed in Bible prophecy.

You could say this was the signature prophecy of Herbert W. Armstrong’s 50-year ministry.

Mr. Armstrong knew a 10-nation union would rise out of Europe in these latter days. He knew the 1950s European Economic Community was the beginning stage of the final resurrection of the Holy Roman Empire. He knew there would eventually be a common currency. He knew there would be a political union. He knew East and West Germany would eventually reunite and a revived German power would dominate a union of European nations.

The current crises facing Europe have caused many prominent voices to demand radical changes. Many are calling for the European Union—currently 28 nations, 19 of which comprise the eurozone—to be reduced to a core of about 10 nations. Some are even using the same label Mr. Armstrong did 50 years ago: a United States of Europe!

Isn’t it remarkable that statements in today’s news are so similar to those Mr. Armstrong made decades ago? Read More


‘Science Supports Genesis’: Geneticist Says Evidence Confirms Biblical Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve

A respected molecular geneticist explores the historicity of Adam and Eve in a newly-released documentary, explaining that modern findings in the field of genetics confirm the Bible’s teachings that all humans descended from an original couple created by God.

Dr. Georgia Purdom earned a Ph.D. in molecular genetics from Ohio State University and has published papers in a number of scientific journals, including the Journal of Neuroscience and the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Formerly a biology professor, Purdom is now a researcher and speaker for the Christian apologetics ministry Answers in Genesis (AiG).

Since joining AiG, Purdom has written numerous articles and been featured in several DVDs and presentations. Her latest work, titled “The Genetics of Adam & Eve,” examines the Genesis account of mankind’s origins from the perspective of genetics.

Georgia Purdom profile

Purdom

“One of the biggest debates in Christianity today concerns the first two people: were Adam and Eve real or are they the product of myths?” Purdom wrote in an article for AiG. “Those who claim we have evolved over millions of years believe that Adam and Eve, as the Bible teaches about them, have no place in human history. They argue that the science of genetics proves we cannot be descended from only two people. Many Christians have accepted this position and propose that their historical existence is irrelevant to Christianity and the gospel.”

MORE


Coal beds and Noah’s Flood

Coal reserves in BTUs as of 2009Coal reserves in BTUs as of 2009 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Coal beds formed from plant debris catastrophically buried by Noah’s Flood about 4,500 years ago? Evolutionists believe that the material in coal beds accumulated over millions of years in quiet swamp environments like the Everglades of Florida. Evolutionary geologists often object to the creationists’ explanation of coal bed formation, so what are their arguments and what answers do we give to them?

Some geologists have claimed that even if all the vegetation on earth was suddenly converted to coal this would make a coal deposit only 1-3% of the known coal reserves on earth. Hence at least 33 Noah’s Floods are needed, staggered in time, to generate our known coal beds. Therefore a single Noah’s Flood cannot be the cause of coal formation.

This argument is based on valid estimates of the volume of vegetation currently on today’s land surfaces. But it assumes that at least 12 metres of vegetation are needed to produce one metre of coal (eg. Holmes, 1965). Modern research shows that less than two metres of vegetation are needed to make one metre of coal. Some observations made by coal geologists working in mines (e.g. the compaction of coal around clay ‘balls’ included in some coal beds) suggest that the compaction ratio is probably much less than 2:1 and more likely very close to 1:1. These observations destroy this objection to coal bed formation during Noah’s Flood, since instead of today’s vegetation volume only compacting down to 1-3% of known coal reserves, today’s vegetation volume would compact down to at least 30% of the known coal reserves. But where did the other 60% come from?

Continue Reading on creation.com

 

Linda Tripp: I saved Monica from being killed by Clinton

The Clinton Crime Family

image from www.wnd.com

Monica Lewinsky in the May 8, 2014, online issue of Vanity Fair

Bill Clinton’s affairs numbered in the “thousands,” and Hillary Clinton’s response was to “disseminate information and destroy the women with whom he dallied,” according to Linda Tripp, a key figure in the Monica Lewinsky scandal.

“Everyone knew within the West Wing, particularly those who spent years with him, of the thousands of women,” Tripp told Breitbart.com’s Aaron Klein in a an interview Sunday night on “Aaron Klein Investigative Radio.”

“But as to the hundreds or thousands, remember I worked closely with the closest aides to the president,” she said. “And it was a loosey-goosy environment so there was not a lot of holding back. So it was common knowledge, let’s put it this way, within the West Wing that he had this problem. It was further common knowledge that Hillary was aware of it.”

Listen to Linda Tripp’s interview with Aaron Klein:


Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2016/01/linda-tripp-i-saved-monica-from-being-killed/#6VUpHgKLkVlFtLLx.99


Listen To The Oldest Song In The World: A Sumerian Hymn Written 3,400 Years Ago

music.jpg

(N.Morgan) Music historians and fans a like are relishing in this discovered treasure of music, dating back over 3,400 years! The piece seems simple enough and I would have liked to hear it on a different instrument, but it is amazing that it has withstood the tests of time and this is a very important discovery, in early human development. In the early 1950s, archaeologists unearthed several clay tablets from the 14th century B.C.E.. Found, WFMU tells us, “in the ancient Syrian city of Ugarit,” these tablets “contained cuneiform signs in the hurrian language,” which turned out to be the oldest known piece of music ever discovered, a 3,400 year-old cult hymn.

Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, professor of Assyriology at the University of California, produced the interpretation above in 1972. (She describes how she arrived at the musical notation—in some technical detail—in this interview.) Since her initial publications in the 60s on the ancient Sumerian tablets and the musical theory found within, other scholars of the ancient world have published their own versions.

 

LISTEN TO THE SONG HERE


How falling oil prices exposed the great green lie

You read this HERE 5 Years ago!  Oil Not Always a ‘Fossil Fuel’ and How did dinosaurs get miles under the earth? Book deflates traditional theories about 'fossil fuels'

Even though I have been reading about plunging oil prices for the past year, it still came as a pleasant surprise this week when I ordered 900 litres of heating oil.

It came to £264. Three years ago, it cost £609 to buy the same quantity.

I have already been saving money on road fuel. Over the past 18 months, the cost of filling my tank has fallen from around £70 to £53.

But for people with oil-fired central heating systems — which is most of us who live in the countryside, beyond the reach of a gas supply — the savings have been even more dramatic.

This is partly because tax makes up a smaller percentage of the retail cost of a litre of heating oil than it does of petrol and diesel.

Fracking: Thanks to fracking— the controversial technique that involves fracturing oil-bearing rocks by pumping in water and sand at high pressure — the U.S. overtook Saudi Arabia as the world’s largest oil producer

For me, the cost of heating my home has more than halved, putting an extra £700 a year in my pocket to be spent on other things. Multiply those kind of savings across the economy and consumers, especially those in rural areas, are enjoying a huge bonus from low oil prices.

We have American oil companies and the Saudis to thank for that. For the past 15 months they have been engaged in a fight to the economic death.

Until recently, Saudi Arabia wielded enormous power in the oil markets. 

Not only was it responsible for 13 per cent of global oil production, but it headed OPEC, the Organisation of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (Opec), which accounted for 40 per cent of world oil production.

Opec is a cartel that exists for one reason alone: to try to fix world oil prices in order to maximise profits for its members, which are made up mostly of Middle Eastern countries.

If the oil price fell, Opec would meet and agree to cut production in order to push the price back up. 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3400335/How-falling-oil-prices-exposed-great-green-lie-Saudi-Arabia-s-battle-drive-prices-far-reaching-peak-oil.html#ixzz3xJsppjqA


THE FULL LETTER WRITTEN BY THE FBI TO MARTIN LUTHER KING HAS BEEN REVEALED

Pretty Darn Good Essay!

Naturally, a man that utters such words and who also has a considerable following would not appeal to the thug in charge of the FBI at the time, J. Edgar Hoover. So what did Mr. Hoover do? He sent a letter to Dr. King, pretending to be a black person and implied that he should kill himself. None of this is news, but until the New York Times released it yesterday, copies of this letter had always been partly redacted. We now have the uncensored version. Here it is:

 

A letter written to King (above) and his reply (below in blue)

 

Continue reading "THE FULL LETTER WRITTEN BY THE FBI TO MARTIN LUTHER KING HAS BEEN REVEALED" »


Betraying the Founding Fathers

A monumental task was before them. Should they succumb to colonial tyranny, or should they fight for their freedom and make a reality of that cherished vision to establish a country without a king and a church without a pope? Their choice was the correct one. They fought and overcame.
Signing the Constitution, September 17, 1787
On September 17, 1787, in the city of Philadelphia, the company of  Jefferson, Franklin, and Co. signed a document that has become the foundation of the greatest experiment of human civilization. In composing U. S. Constitution, is is evident that the the Founding Fathers perceived it as a strong bulwark against the religious/political tyranny from which many of them fled and they all vehemently resisted. 
 
Sadly, the inherent principles of freedom, liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness of the founding document are stealthily being attacked. The attack is coming not from a destroyer from without as many believe, but from a usurper from within; one that the Founding Fathers passionately warned against. But, have they been betrayed?  Find out who is the enemy.

How Important is the Bible to America’s Survival?

Posted on February 3, 2011 by Apologetics Press

There was a time in American civilization when the Bible was integral to every aspect of life. It was reverenced in the home. It was taught and used in the schools. It was incorporated into our laws and integrated into our courts of justice. It was quoted by politicians, judges, educators, and even entertainers. It permeated the great literature of Western Civilization. But with the multitude of attacks on the integrity, inspiration, and inerrancy of the Bible over the last century, respect for the Bible has waned significantly. Particularly after World War II, confidence in the Bible as the divine Word of God has been seriously undermined in America. Amazingly, a recent poll still shows the Bible to be the all-time favorite book for American adults: “Researchers said it’s rare to find such consensus among Americans, regardless of gender, education level, geographic location, race/ethnicity or age” (Hamm, 2008).

THE BIBLE’S CLAIM

 How important is belief in the Bible to the survival of any nation? The Bible speaks directly to this point: it is absolutely critical to both personal and private life, as well as national life. Consider these few biblical declarations:

Surely I have taught you statutes and judgments, just as the Lord my God commanded me, that you should act according to them in the land which you go to possess. Therefore be careful to observe them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear all these statutes, and say, “Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.” For what great nation is there that has God so near to it, as the Lord our God is to us, for whatever reason we may call upon Him? And what great nation is there that has such statutes and righteous judgments as are in all this law which I set before you this day?… You shall therefore keep His statutes and His commandments which I command you today, that it may go well with you and with your children after you, and that you may prolong your days in the land (Deuteronomy 4:5-8,40, emp. added; cf. 5:33; 6:2-3,18).

Set your hearts on all the words which I testify among you today, which you shall command your children to be careful to observe—all the words of this law. For it is not a futile thing for you, because it is your life, and by this word you shall prolong your days in the land (Deuteronomy 32:46-47, emp. added).

The instant I speak concerning a nation and concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, to pull down, and to destroy it, if that nation against whom I have spoken turns from its evil, I will relent of the disaster that I thought to bring upon it. And the instant I speak concerning a nation and concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant it, if it does evil in My sight so that it does not obey My voice, then I will relent concerning the good with which I said I would benefit it (Jeremiah 18:7-10, emp. added).

I will never forget Your precepts, for by them You have given me life. Oh, how I love Your law! It is my meditation all the day. You, through Your commandments, make me wiser than my enemies; for they are ever with me. I understand more than the ancients, because I keep Your precepts. How sweet are Your words to my taste, sweeter than honey to my mouth! Through Your precepts I get understanding; therefore I hate every false way. Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path (Psalm 119:93,97-98,100,103-105, emp. added).

For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart (Hebrews 4:12, emp. added).

If you abide in My word, you are My disciples indeed. And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free…. He who rejects Me, and does not receive My words, has that which judges him—the word that I have spoken will judge him in the last day…. Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth (John 8:31-32; 12:48; 17:17, emp. added).

This means that the Bible is the most important book on the planet, in a class by itself, surpassing all others. Indeed, whereas all other books are the word of men, the Bible is the Word of God.

THE FOUNDERS’ CLAIM

How important was the Bible in the minds of the architects of American civilization? History is decisive on this point as well: the Founders viewed the Bible as absolutely indispensable and integral to the survival of the Republic. It is no wonder that, after a decade-long study in an effort to identify where the Founders acquired their ideas for the formation of the nation and the writing of its constitutions of government, political scientists conducting the study concluded that the Founders cited the Bible in their political utterances far more often than any other source (see Lutz, 1988, pp. 140-141).

Indeed, we live in a time warp far removed from America’s origins. The Founders clearly believed that the initial founding and the future survival of the Republic were both heavily, if not exclusively, dependent on the successful diffusion of the Bible throughout society. In fact, the Framers of the first state constitution of Massachusetts emphasized that very point in its third article:

Article III. [As the happiness of a people, and the good order and preservation of civil government, essentially depend upon piety, religion and morality; and as these cannot be generally diffused through a community, but by the institution of the public worship of God, and of public instructions in piety, religion and morality: Therefore, to promote their happiness and to secure the good order and preservation of their government, the people of this commonwealth have a right to invest their legislature with power to authorize and require, and the legislature shall, from time to time, authorize and require, the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of the public worship of God, and for the support and maintenance of...teachers of piety, religion and morality, in all cases where such provision shall not be made voluntarily (Constitution of the...,” emp. added). 

The Framers of the Massachusetts constitution believed that “public instructions in piety, religion and morality” could come only from the Bible.

The Continental Congress considered the Bible so important to national life that they actually passed resolutions to make certain that Bibles were in abundance in the country. The Continental Congress directed a committee to investigate ways by which Bibles could be secured. The committee made its report on September 11, 1777, stating “that the use of the Bible is so universal, and its importance so great...your Committee recommend [sic] that Congress will order the Committee of Commerce to import 20,000 Bibles from Holland, Scotland, or elsewhere, into the different ports of the states in the Union.” Congress promptly ordered the importation (Journals of…, 1907, 8:734-745, emp. added). Four years later, as the colonies suffered from the effects of the British embargo, and as the shortage of Bibles continued, importation became sufficiently impractical that Congress was again petitioned for approval, this time to print Bibles in America, rather than to import them from outside the country. The request was approved and upon completion of the printing, on Thursday, September 12, 1782, the full Congress not only approved the edition, but gave permission for their endorsement to be placed in the front of the Bible! It read: “Whereupon, Resolved, That the United States in Congress assembled…recommend this edition of the Bible to the inhabitants of the United States” (Journals of…, 1914, 23:574). Who today would believe that the members of the original Congress of the United States considered the Bible so important to national existence that they would expend effort—even in wartime—to make certain that Bibles were available to the American population? The present widespread loss of respect for and interest in the Bible, is disgraceful, and if continued, will spell our national doom.

 

Continue reading "How Important is the Bible to America’s Survival?" »


Daniel 11 being fulfilled NOW

FROM:  END TIMES PROPHECIES:

Return of the Crusades? Tens of thousands of Polish Catholics gather to 'defend Christianity against Islam' (December 2015)

Father Jacek Miedlar's sermon to the participants of the March for Independence 2015, calling to defend the Christianity in Poland in the wake of the Islamic invasion on Europe. The entire march, according to different sources, gathers from 70,000 to 150,000 participants."

Crusades 2.0? Church of England supports military action in Syria

Vatican backs using military force against ISIS

Oh friends, I hope you can see the major things that are taking place in our world today. ISIS and these extremist muslims are being allowed, yes, allowed, to spread their hate, destruction and fear around the world for one main reason ... "And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon ... saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live." (Revelation 13)

The reason? To cause professed Christians to rise up and unite with the state to form the IMAGE OF THE BEAST. The time is coming soon when 'Christians' will unite and form this image (image of the Papacy - uniting of church and state) to 'fight off any extremist threat against Christianity'. And the whole world will be forced to give their allegiance to this image, by America, the earth beast.

Sounds good? No, as Revelation 13 confirms, this 'uprising of Christians' and the uniting of church and state will end up in the enforcement of the mark of the beast. And Satan will gather the whole world under his banner. Yet God will keep a remnant who 'keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus Christ' (Revelation 14:12).


WATCH EUROPE! The Beast of Revelation

Fear, Anger and HatredThe Rise of Germany's New Right

Fear, Anger and Hatred: The Rise of Germany's New Right

For years, a sense of disillusionment has been growing on the right. Now, the refugee crisis has magnified that frustration. Increasingly, people from the very center of society are identifying with the movement -- even as political debate coarsens and violence increases. By SPIEGEL Staff more... Comment ]


Polio Vaccines Now The #1 Cause of Polio Paralysis

Sayer Ji, Contributing Writer
Activist Post

The Polio Global Eradication Initiative (PGEI), founded in 1988 by the World Health Organization, Rotary International, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, holds up India as a prime example of its success at eradicating polio, stating on its website (Jan. 11 2012) that "India has made unprecedented progress against polio in the last two years and on 13 January, 2012, India will reach a major milestone -- a 12-month period without any case of polio being recorded."

This report, however, is highly misleading, as an estimated 100-180 Indian children are diagnosed with vaccine-associated polio paralysis (VAPP) each year. In fact, the clinical presentation of the disease, including paralysis, caused by VAPP is indistinguishable from that caused by wild polioviruses, making the PGEI's pronouncements all the more suspect.1

El Faro's final resting place:

El Faro's final resting place: First images emerge of sunken freighter - three months after it fell victim to Hurricane Joaquin in the Bermuda Triangle, killing 33 sailors

First images emerge showing sunken El Faro in its final resting place

Investigators discovered the wreck of the El Faro (inset) 15,000ft beneath the sea near The Bahamas last year, but this is the first time the wreckage has been pictured using an underwater drone. The pictures show the ship's badly damaged main hull (left) and deserted main deck (right). Workers from the National Transportation Safety Board had been conducting a weeks-long search for the upper decks of the vessel which separated during the sinking, and have now found one of them half a mile away. However, still missing is the main mast of the ship which houses the data recorder, including vital clues as to the last moments of the El Faro, it's crew, and why it sank. El Faro's final resting place: First images emerge of sunken freighter - three months after it fell victim to Hurricane Joaquin in the Bermuda Triangle, killing 33 sailors


Defending America: Armed protesters take over federal wildlife refuge in Oregon

English: Headquarters for the Malheur National...English: Headquarters for the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in SE Oregon. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

(CNN)A group of armed protesters have taken over a building in a federal wildlife refuge in Oregon, accusing officials of unfairly punishing ranchers who refused to sell their land, a spokesman for the group told CNN.

The protesters occupied part of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge near Burns after a march supporting Dwight and Steven Hammond, two ranchers who are convicted of arson.

Prosecutors said the Hammonds set the fire, which burned about 130 acres in 2001, to cover up poaching. The father and son were sentenced to five years in prison.

The Hammonds said they lit the fire to reduce the growth of invasive plants and protect their property from wildfires, CNN affiliate KTVZ reported.


A History of New Years - Once again, thank the Romans

I always find it amazing that we can always remember to keep ancient pagan days, BUT NOT ONE found in the Bible- NOT ONE!

  In 46 B.C.E. the Roman emperor Julius Caesar first established January 1 as New Year’s day. Janus was the Roman god of doors and gates, and had two faces, one looking forward and one back.  Caesar felt that the month named after this god (“January”) would be the appropriate “door” to the year.  Caesar celebrated the first January 1 New Year by ordering the violent routing of revolutionary Jewish forces in the Galilee.  Eyewitnesses say blood flowed in the streets.  In later years, Roman pagans observed the New Year by engaging in drunken orgies—a ritual they believed constituted a personal re-enacting of the chaotic world that existed before the cosmos was ordered by the gods.

As Christianity spread, pagan holidays were either incorporated into the Christian calendar or abandoned altogether.  By the early medieval period most of Christian Europe regarded Annunciation Day (March 25) as the beginning of the year.  (According to Catholic tradition, Annunciation Day commemorates the angel Gabriel’s announcement to Mary that she would be impregnated by G-d and conceive a son to be called Jesus.)

    After William the Conqueror (AKA “William the Bastard” and “William of Normandy”) became King of England on December 25, 1066, he decreed that the English return to the date established by the Roman pagans, January 1.  This move ensured that the commemoration of Jesus’ birthday (December 25) would align with William’s coronation, and the commemoration of Jesus’ circumcision (January 1) would start the new year - thus rooting the English and Christian calendars and his own Coronation).  William’s innovation was eventually rejected, and England rejoined the rest of the Christian world and returned to celebrating New Years Day on March 25.

    About five hundred years later, in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII (AKA “Ugo Boncompagni”, 1502-1585) abandoned the traditional Julian calendar. Read the rest